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Anti-Doping Rules

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International e-Sports Federation

Anti-Doping Rules

(Based upon the 2015 Code)

July 2014

 

Table of Contents

 

INTRODUCTION

Preface

Fundamental Rationale for the Code and IeSF Anti-Doping Rules

Scope of these Anti-Doping Rules

Article 1

Definition of Doping

Article 2

Anti-Doping Rule Violations

Article 3

Proof of Doping

Article 4

The Prohibited List

Article 5

Testing and Investigations

Article 6

Analysis of Samples

Article 7

Results Management

Article 8

Right to a Fair Hearing

Article 9

Automatic Disqualification of Individual Results

Article 10

Sanctions on Individuals

Article 11

Consequences to Teams

Article 12

Sanctions and Costs Assessed against Sporting Bodies

Article 13

Appeals

Article 14

Confidentiality and Reporting

Article 15

Application and Recognition of Decisions

Article 16

Incorporation of IeSF Anti-Doping Rules and Obligations of National Federations

Article 17

Statute of Limitations

Article 18

IeSF Compliance Reports to WADA

Article 19

Education

Article 20

Amendment and Interpretation of Anti-Doping Rules

Article 21

Interpretation of the Code

Article 22

Additional Roles and Responsibilities of Athletes and Other Persons

 

 

Appendix 1

Definitions

Appendix 2

Example of the Application of Article 10

 


The IeSF Anti-Doping Regulations

INTRODUCTION

 

Preface

These Anti-Doping Rules are adopted and implemented in accordance with IeSF's responsibilities under the Code, and in furtherance of IeSF's continuing efforts to eradicate doping in sport.

These Anti-Doping Rules are sport rules governing the conditions under which sport is played. Aimed at enforcing anti-doping principles in a global and harmonized manner, are distinct in nature from criminal and civil laws, and are not intended to be subject to or limited by any national requirements and legal standards applicable to criminal or civil proceedings. When reviewing the facts and the law of given case, all courts, arbitral tribunals and other adjudicating bodies should be aware of and respect the distinct nature of these Anti-Doping Rules implementing the Code and the fact that these rules represent the consensus of a broad spectrum of stakeholders around the world as to what is necessary to protect and ensure fair sport.

Fundamental Rationale for the Code and IeSF Anti-Doping Rules

Anti-doping programs seek to preserve what is intrinsically valuable about sport. This intrinsic value is often referred to as “the spirit of sport”. It is the essence of Olympism, the pursuit of human excellence through the dedicated perfection of each person;s natural talents. It is how we play true. The spirit of sport is the celebration of the human spirit, body, and mind, and is reflected in values we find in and through sport, including:

Ÿ Ethics, fair play and honesty

Ÿ Health

Ÿ Excellence in performance

Ÿ Character and education

Ÿ Fun and joy

Ÿ Teamwork

Ÿ Dedication and commitment

Ÿ Respect for rules and laws

Ÿ Respect for self and other Participants

Ÿ Courage

Ÿ Community and solidarity

Doping is fundamentally contrary to the spirit of sport.

Scope of these Anti-Doping Rules

These Anti-Doping Rules shall apply to IeSF and to each of its National Federations. They also apply to the following Athletes, Athlete Support Personnel and other Persons, each of whom is deemed, as a condition of his/her membership, accreditation and/or participation in the sport, to have agreed to be bound by these Anti-Doping Rules, and to have submitted to the authority of IeSF to enforce these Anti-Doping Rules and to the jurisdiction of the hearing panels specified in Article 8 and Article 13 to hear and determine cases and appeals brought under these Anti-Doping Rules:

a. all Athletes and Athlete Support Personnel who are registered to IeSF, or to any National Federation, or to any member or affiliate organization of any National Federation (including any clubs, teams, associations or leagues);

b. all Athletes and Athlete Support Personnel participating in such capacity in Events, Competitions and other activities organized, convened, authorized or recognized by IeSF, or any National Federation, or any member or affiliate organization of any National Federation (including any clubs, teams, associations or leagues), wherever held;

c. any other Athlete or Athlete Support Personnel or other Person who, by virtue of an accreditation, a license or other contractual arrangement, or otherwise, is subject to the jurisdiction of IeSF, or of any National Federation, or of any member or affiliate organization of any National Federation (including any clubs, teams, associations or leagues), for purposes of anti-doping; and

d. Athletes who are not registered to IeSF or to one of its National Federations but who want to be eligible to compete in a particular International Event. IeSF may include such Athletes in its Registered Testing Pool so that they are required to provide information about their whereabouts for purposes of Testing under these Anti-Doping Rules for at least one month prior to the International Event in question.

Within the overall pool of Athletes set out above who are bound by and required to comply with these Anti-Doping Rules, the following Athletes shall be considered to be International-Level Athletes for purposes of these Anti-Doping Rules, and therefore the specific provisions in these Anti-Doping Rules applicable to International-Level Athletes (as regards Testing but also as regards TUEs, whereabouts information, results management, and appeals) shall apply to such Athletes who compete or who are scheduled to compete in the following International Events:

a. IeSF e-Sports World Championship

b. Any Multi Sports Events where IeSF operate e-Sports competition

Article 1Definition of Doping

Doping is defined as the occurrence of one or more of the anti-doping rule violations set forth in Article 2.1 through Article 2.10 of these Anti-Doping Rules.

Article 2Anti-Doping Rule Violations

The purpose of Article 2 is to specify the circumstances and conduct which constitute anti-doping rule violations.  Hearings in doping cases will proceed based on the assertion that one or more of these specific rules have been violated.

Athletes or other Persons shall be responsible for knowing what constitutes an anti-doping rule violation and the substances and methods which have been included on the Prohibited List. The following constitute anti-doping rule violations:

2.1 Presence of a Prohibited Substance or its Metabolites or Markers in an Athlete's Sample

2.1.1 It is each Athlete's personal duty to ensure that no Prohibited Substance enters his or her body.  Athletes are responsible for any Prohibited Substance or its Metabolites or Markers found to be present in their Samples.  Accordingly, it is not necessary that intent, Fault, negligence or knowing Use on the Athlete's part be demonstrated in order to establish an anti-doping rule violation under Article 2.1.

2.1.2 Sufficient proof of an anti-doping rule violation under Article 2.1 is established by any of the following: presence of Prohibited Substance or its Metabolites or Markers in the Athlete's A Sample where the Athlete waives analysis of the B Sample and the B Sample is not analyzed; or, where the Athlete's B Sample is analyzed and the analysis of the Athlete's B Sample confirms the presence of the Prohibited Substance or its Metabolites or Markers found in the Athlete's A Sample; or, where the Athlete's B Sample is split into two bottles and the analysis of the second bottle confirms the presence of the Prohibited Substance or its Metabolites or Markers found in the first bottle.

2.1.3 Excepting those substances for which a quantitative threshold is specifically identified in the Prohibited List, the presence of any quantity of a Prohibited Substance or its Metabolites or Markers in an Athlete's Sample shall constitute an anti-doping rule violation.

2.1.4 As an exception to the general rule of Article 2.1, the Prohibited List or International Standards may establish special criteria for the evaluation of Prohibited Substances that can also be produced endogenously.

2.2 Use or Attempted Use by an Athlete of a Prohibited Substance or a Prohibited Method

2.2.1 It is each Athlete's personal duty to ensure that no Prohibited Substance enters his or her body and that no Prohibited Method is Used. Accordingly, it is not necessary that intent, Fault, negligence or knowing Use on the Athlete's part be demonstrated in order to establish an anti-doping rule violation for Use of a Prohibited Substance or a Prohibited Method.

2.2.2 The success or failure of the Use or Attempted Use of a Prohibited Substance or Prohibited Method is not material.  It is sufficient that the Prohibited Substance or Prohibited Method was Used or Attempted to be Used for an anti-doping rule violation to be committed.

2.3 Evading, Refusing, or Failing to Submit to Sample Collection

Evading Sample collection, or without compelling justification refusing or failing to submit to Sample collection after notification as authorized in these Anti-Doping Rules or other applicable anti-doping rules.

2.4 Whereabouts Failures

Any combination of three missed tests and/or filing failures, as defined in the International Standard for Testing and Investigations, within a twelve-month period by an Athlete in a Registered Testing Pool.

2.5 Tampering, or Attempted Tampering with any part of Doping Control

Conduct which subverts the Doping Control process but which would not otherwise be included in the definition of Prohibited Methods. Tampering shall include, without limitation, intentionally interfering or attempting to interfere with a Doping Control official, providing fraudulent information to an Anti-Doping Organization, or intimidating or attempting to intimidate a potential witness.

2.6 Possession of a Prohibited Substance or a Prohibited Method.

2.6.1 Possession by an Athlete In-Competition of any Prohibited Substance or any Prohibited Method, or Possession by an Athlete Out-of-Competition of any Prohibited Substance or any Prohibited Method which is prohibited Out-of-Competition unless the Athlete establishes that the Possession is consistent with a Therapeutic Use Exemption  (“TUE”) granted in accordance with Article 4.4 or other acceptable justification.

2.6.2 Possession by an Athlete Support Person In-Competition of any Prohibited Substance or any Prohibited Method, or Possession by an Athlete Support Person Out-of-Competition of any Prohibited Substance or any Prohibited Method which is prohibited Out-of-Competition in connection with an Athlete, Competition or training, unless the Athlete Support Person establishes that the Possession is consistent with a TUE granted to an Athlete in accordance with Article 4.4 or other acceptable justification.

2.7 Trafficking or Attempted Trafficking in any Prohibited Substance or Prohibited Method

2.8 Administration or Attempted Administration to any Athlete In-Competition of any Prohibited Substance or Prohibited Method, or Administration or Attempted Administration to any Athlete Out-of-Competition of any Prohibited Substance or any Prohibited Method that is prohibited Out-of-Competition

2.9 Complicity

Assisting, encouraging, aiding, abetting, conspiring, covering up or any other type of intentional complicity involving an anti-doping rule violation, Attempted anti-doping rule violation or violation of Article 10.12.1 by another Person.

2.10  Prohibited Association

Association by an Athlete or other Person subject to the authority of an Anti-Doping Organization in a professional or sport-related capacity with any Athlete Support Person who:

2.10.1 If subject to the authority of an Anti-Doping Organization, is serving a period of Ineligibility; or

2.10.2 If not subject to the authority of an Anti-Doping Organization and where Ineligibility has not been addressed in a results management process pursuant to the Code, has been convicted or found in a criminal, disciplinary or professional proceeding to have engaged in conduct which would have constituted a violation of anti-doping rules if Code-compliant rules had been applicable to such Person. The disqualifying status of such Person shall be in force for the longer of six years from the criminal, professional or disciplinary decision or the duration of the criminal, disciplinary or professional sanction imposed; or

2.10.3 Is serving as a front or intermediary for an individual described in Article 2.10.1 or 2.10.2.

In order for this provision to apply, it is necessary that the Athlete or other Person has previously been advised in writing by an Anti-Doping Organization with jurisdiction over the Athlete or other Person, or by WADA, of the Athlete Support Person's disqualifying status and the potential Consequence of prohibited association and that the Athlete or other Person can reasonably avoid the association.  The Anti-Doping Organization shall also use reasonable efforts to advise the Athlete Support Person who is the subject of the notice to the Athlete or other Person that the Athlete Support Person may, within 15 days, come forward to the Anti-Doping Organization to explain that the criteria described in Articles 2.10.1 and 2.10.2 do not apply to him or her. (Notwithstanding Article 17, this Article applies even when the Athlete Support Person's disqualifying conduct occurred prior to the effective date provided in Article 20.7.)

The burden shall be on the Athlete or other Person to establish that any association with Athlete Support Personnel described in Article 2.10.1 or 2.10.2 is not in a professional or sport-related capacity.

Anti-Doping Organizations that are aware of Athlete Support Personnel who meet the criteria described in Article 2.10.1, 2.10.2, or 2.10.3 shall submit that information to WADA.

Article 3Proof of Doping

3.1 Burdens and Standards of Proof

IeSF shall have the burden of establishing that an anti-doping rule violation has occurred. The standard of proof shall be whether IeSF has established an anti-doping rule violation to the comfortable satisfaction of the hearing panel bearing in mind the seriousness of the allegation which is made. This standard of proof in all cases is greater than a mere balance of probability but less than proof beyond a reasonable doubt.  Where these Anti-Doping Rules place the burden of proof upon the Athlete or other Person alleged to have committed an anti-doping rule violation to rebut a presumption or establish specified facts or circumstances, the standard of proof shall be by a balance of probability.

3.2 Methods of Establishing Facts and Presumptions

Facts related to anti-doping rule violations may be established by any reliable means, including admissions. The following rules of proof shall be applicable in doping cases:

3.2.1 Analytical methods or decision limits approved by WADA after consultation within the relevant scientific community and which have been the subject of peer review are presumed to be scientifically valid.  Any Athlete or other Person seeking to rebut this presumption of scientific validity shall, as a condition precedent to any such challenge, first notify WADA of the challenge and the basis of the challenge. CAS on its own initiative may also inform WADA of any such challenge. At WADA's request, the CAS panel shall appoint an appropriate scientific expert to assist the panel in its evaluation of the challenge. Within 10 days of WADA's receipt of such notice, and WADA's receipt of the CAS file, WADA shall also have the right to intervene as a party, appear amicus curiae, or otherwise provide evidence in such proceeding.

3.2.2 WADA-accredited laboratories, and other laboratories approved by WADA, are presumed to have conducted Sample analysis and custodial procedures in accordance with the International Standard for Laboratories. The Athlete or other Person may rebut this presumption by establishing that a departure from the International Standard for Laboratories occurred which could reasonably have caused the Adverse Analytical FindingIf the Athlete or other Person rebuts the preceding presumption by showing that a departure from the International Standard for Laboratories occurred which could reasonably have caused the Adverse Analytical Finding, then, IeSF shall have the burden to establish that such departure did not cause the Adverse Analytical Finding.

3.2.3 Departures from any other International Standard or other anti-doping rule or policy set forth in the Code or these Anti-Doping Rules which did not cause an Adverse Analytical Finding or other anti-doping rule violation shall not invalidate such evidence or results.  If the Athlete or other Person establishes a departure from another International Standard or other anti-doping rule or policy which could reasonably have caused an anti-doping rule violation based on an Adverse Analytical Finding or other anti-doping rule violation, then IeSF shall have the burden to establish that such departure did not cause the Adverse Analytical Finding or the factual basis for the anti-doping rule violation.

3.2.4 The facts established by a decision of a court or professional disciplinary tribunal of competent jurisdiction which is not the subject of a pending appeal shall be irrebuttable evidence against the Athlete or other Person to whom the decision pertained of those facts unless the Athlete or other Person establishes that the decision violated principles of natural justice.

3.2.5 The hearing panel in a hearing on an anti-doping rule violation may draw an inference adverse to the Athlete or other Person who is asserted to have committed an anti-doping rule violation based on the Athlete's or other Person's refusal, after a request made in a reasonable time in advance of the hearing, to appear at the hearing (either in person or telephonically as directed by the hearing panel) and to answer questions from the hearing panel or IeSF.

Article 4The Prohibited List

4.1 Incorporation of Prohibited List

These Anti-Doping Rules incorporate the Prohibited List, which is published and revised by WADA as described in Article 4.1 of the Code. The current Prohibited List is available on at www.wada-ama.org.

4.2 Prohibited Substances and Prohibited Methods Identified on the Prohibited List

4.2.1 Prohibited Substances and Prohibited Methods

Unless provided otherwise in the Prohibited List and/or a revision, the Prohibited List and revisions shall go into effect under these Anti-Doping Rules three months after publication by WADA, without requiring any further action by IeSF or its National Federations. All Athletes and other Persons shall be bound by the Prohibited List, and any revisions thereto, from the date they go into effect, without further formality.  It is the responsibility of all Athletes and other Persons to familiarize themselves with the most up-to-date version of the Prohibited List and all revisions thereto.

4.2.2 Specified Substances

For purposes of the application of Article 10, all Prohibited Substances shall be Specified Substances except substances in the classes of anabolic agents and hormones and those stimulants and hormone antagonists and modulators so identified on the Prohibited List. The category of Specified Substances shall not include Prohibited Methods.

4.3 WADA's Determination of the Prohibited List

WADA's determination of the Prohibited Substances and Prohibited Methods that will be included on the Prohibited List, the classification of substances into categories on the Prohibited List, and the classification of a substance as prohibited at all times or In-Competition only, is final and shall not be subject to challenge by an Athlete or other Person based on an argument that the substance or method was not a masking agent or did not have the potential to enhance performance, represent a health risk or violate the spirit of sport.

4.4 Therapeutic Use Exemptions (“TUEs”)

4.4.1 The presence of a Prohibited Substance or its Metabolites or Markers, and/or the Use or Attempted Use, Possession or Administration or Attempted Administration of a Prohibited Substance or Prohibited Method, shall not be considered an anti-doping rule violation if it is consistent with the provisions of a TUE granted in accordance with the International Standard for Therapeutic Use Exemptions.

4.4.2 If an International-Level Athlete is using a Prohibited Substance or a Prohibited Method for therapeutic reasons:

4.4.2.1 Where the Athlete already has a TUE granted by his or her National Anti-Doping Organization for the substance or method in question, that TUE is not automatically valid for international-level Competition. However, the Athlete may apply to IeSF to recognize that TUE, in accordance with Article 7 of the International Standard for Therapeutic Use ExemptionsIf that TUE meets the criteria set out in the International Standard for Therapeutic Use Exemptions, then IeSF shall recognize it for purposes of international-level Competition as well.  If IeSF considers that the TUE does not meet those criteria and so refuses to recognize it, IeSF shall notify the Athlete and his or her National Anti-Doping Organization promptly, with reasons. The Athlete and the National Anti-Doping Organization shall have 21 days from such notification to refer the matter to WADA for review in accordance with Article 4.4.6. If the matter is referred to WADA for review, the TUE granted by the National Anti-Doping Organization remains valid for national-level Competition and Out-of-Competition Testing (but is not valid for international-level Competition) pending WADA's decision.  If the matter is not referred to WADA for review, the TUE becomes invalid for any purpose when the 21-day review deadline expires.

4.4.2.2 If the Athlete does not already have a TUE granted by his/her National Anti-Doping Organization for the substance or method in question, the Athlete must apply directly to IeSF for a TUE in accordance with the process set out in the International Standard for Therapeutic Use Exemptions, using the Therapeutic Use Exemption Form at Appendix 3 of IeSF Anti-Doping Rules. If IeSF denies the Athlete's application, it must notify the Athlete promptly, with reasons. If IeSF grants the Athlete's application, it shall notify not only the Athlete but also his/her National Anti-Doping Organization. If the National Anti-Doping Organization considers that the TUE granted by IeSF does not meet the criteria set out in the International Standard for Therapeutic Use Exemptions, it has 21 days from such notification to refer the matter to WADA for review in accordance with Article 4.4.6. If the National Anti-Doping Organization refers the matter to WADA for review, the TUE granted by IeSF remains valid for international-level Competition and Out-of-Competition Testing (but is not valid for national-level Competition) pending WADA's decision. If the National Anti-Doping Organization does not refer the matter to WADA for review, the TUE granted by IeSF becomes valid for national-level Competition as well when the 21-day review deadline expires.

4.4.3 If IeSF chooses to test an Athlete who is not an International-Level Athlete, IeSF shall recognize a TUE granted to that Athlete by his or her National Anti-Doping Organization.  If IeSF chooses to test an Athlete who is not an International-Level or a National-Level Athlete, IeSF shall permit that Athlete to apply for a retroactive TUE for any Prohibited Substance or Prohibited Method that he/she is using for therapeutic reasons.

4.4.4 An application to IeSF for grant or recognition of a TUE must be made as soon as the need arises and in any event (save in emergency or exceptional situations or where Article 4.3 of the International Standard for Therapeutic Use Exemptions applies) at least 30 days before the Athlete's next Competition. IeSF shall appoint a panel to consider applications for the grant or recognition of TUEs (the TUE Committee). The TUE Committee shall promptly evaluate and decide upon the application in accordance with the relevant provisions of the International Standard for Therapeutic Use Exemptions and the Guideline for Therapeutic Use Exemption posted on the IeSF Doping Control Manual. Its decision shall be the final decision of IeSF, and shall be reported to WADA and other relevant Anti-Doping Organizations, including the Athlete's National Anti-Doping Organization, through ADAMS, in accordance with the International Standard for Therapeutic Use Exemptions.

4.4.5 Expiration, Cancellation, Withdrawal or Reversal of a TUE

4.4.5.1 A TUE granted pursuant to these Anti-Doping Rules: (a) shall expire automatically at the end of any term for which it was granted, without the need for any further notice or other formality; (b) may be cancelled if the Athlete does not promptly comply with any requirements or conditions imposed by the TUE Committee upon grant of the TUE; (c) may be withdrawn by the TUE Committee if it is subsequently determined that the criteria for grant of a TUE are not in fact met; or (d) may be reversed on review by WADA or on appeal.

4.4.5.2 In such event, the Athlete shall not be subject to any Consequences based on his/her Use or Possession or Administration of the Prohibited Substance or Prohibited Method in question in accordance with the TUE prior to the effective date of expiry, cancellation, withdrawal or reversal of the TUE. The review pursuant to Article 7.2 of any subsequent Adverse Analytical Finding shall include consideration of whether such finding is consistent with Use of the Prohibited Substance or Prohibited Method prior to that date, in which event no anti-doping rule violation shall be asserted.

4.4.6 Reviews and Appeals of TUE Decisions

4.4.6.1 WADA shall review any decision by IeSF not to recognize a TUE granted by the National Anti-Doping Organization that is referred to WADA by the Athlete or the Athlete's National Anti-Doping Organization. In addition, WADA shall review any decision by IeSF to grant a TUE that is referred to WADA by the Athlete's National Anti-Doping Organization. WADA may review any other TUE decisions at any time, whether upon request by those affected or on its own initiative. If the TUE decision being reviewed meets the criteria set out in the International Standard for Therapeutic Use Exemptions, WADA will not interfere with it. If the TUE decision does not meet those criteria, WADA will reverse it.

4.4.6.2 Any TUE decision by IeSF (or by a National Anti-Doping Organization where it has agreed to consider the application on behalf of IeSF) that is not reviewed by WADA, or that is reviewed by WADA but is not reversed upon review, may be appealed by the Athlete and/or the Athlete's National Anti-Doping Organization exclusively to CAS, in accordance with Article 13.

4.4.6.3 A decision by WADA to reverse a TUE decision may be appealed by the Athlete, the National Anti-Doping Organization and/or IeSF exclusively to CAS, in accordance with Article 13.

4.4.6.4 A failure to take action within a reasonable time on a properly submitted application for grant or recognition of a TUE or for review of a TUE decision shall be considered a denial of the application.

Article 5Testing and Investigations

5.1 Purpose of Testing and Investigations

Testing and investigations shall only be undertaken for anti-doping purposes. They shall be conducted in conformity with the provisions of the International Standard for Testing and Investigations and the specific protocols of IeSF supplementing that International Standard.

5.1.1 Testing shall be undertaken to obtain analytical evidence as to the Athlete's compliance (or non-compliance) with the strict Code prohibition on the presence/Use of a Prohibited Substance or Prohibited Method. Test distribution planning, Testing, post-Testing activity and all related activities conducted by IeSF shall be in conformity with the International Standard for Testing and Investigations. IeSF shall determine the number of finishing placement tests, random tests and target tests to be performed, in accordance with the criteria established by the International Standard for Testing and Investigations. All provisions of the International Standard for Testing and Investigations shall apply automatically in respect of all such Testing.

5.1.2 Investigations shall be undertaken:

5.1.2.1 in relation to Atypical Findings, Atypical Passport Findings and Adverse Passport Findings, in accordance with Articles 7.4 and 7.5 respectively, gathering intelligence or evidence (including, in particular, analytical evidence) in order to determine whether an anti-doping rule violation has occurred under Article 2.1 and/or Article 2.2; and

5.1.2.2 in relation to other indications of potential anti-doping rule violations, in accordance with Articles 7.6 and 7.7, gathering intelligence or evidence (including, in particular, non-analytical evidence) in order to determine whether an anti-doping rule violation has occurred under any of Articles 2.2 to 2.10.

5.1.3 IeSF may obtain, assess and process anti-doping intelligence from all available sources, to inform the development of an effective, intelligent and proportionate test distribution plan, to plan Target Testing, and/or to form the basis of an investigation into a possible anti-doping rule violation(s).

5.2 Authority to conduct Testing

5.2.1 Subject to the jurisdictional limitations for Event Testing set out in Article 5.3 of the Code, IeSF shall have In-Competition and Out-of-Competition Testing authority over all of the Athletes specified in the Introduction to these Anti-Doping Rules (under the heading "Scope").

5.2.2 IeSF may require any Athlete over whom it has Testing authority (including any Athlete serving a period of Ineligibility) to provide a Sample at any time and at any place.

5.2.3 WADA shall have In-Competition and Out-of-Competition Testing authority as set out in Article 20.7.8 of the Code.

5.2.4 If IeSF delegates or contracts any part of Testing to a National Anti-Doping Organization (directly or through a National Federation), that National Anti-Doping Organization may collect additional Samples or direct the laboratory to perform additional types of analysis at the National Anti-Doping Organization's expense. If additional Samples are collected or additional types of analysis are performed, IeSF shall be notified.

5.3 Event Testing

5.3.1 Except as provided in Article 5.3 of the Code, only a single organization should be responsible for initiating and directing Testing at Event Venues during an Event Period. At International Events, the collection of Samples shall be initiated and directed by IeSF (or any other international organization which is the ruling body for the Event). At the request of IeSF (or any other international organization which is the ruling body for an Event), any Testing during the Event Period outside of the Event Venues shall be coordinated with IeSF (or the relevant ruling body of the Event).

5.3.2 If an Anti-Doping Organization which would otherwise have Testing authority but is not responsible for initiating and directing Testing at an Event desires to conduct Testing of Athletes at the Event Venues during the Event Period, the Anti-Doping Organization shall first confer with IeSF (or any other international organization which is the ruling body of the Event) to obtain permission to conduct and coordinate such Testing. If the Anti-Doping Organization is not satisfied with the response from IeSF (or any other international organization which is the ruling body of the Event), the Anti-Doping Organization may ask WADA for permission to conduct Testing and to determine how to coordinate such Testing, in accordance with the procedures set out in the International Standard for Testing and Investigations. WADA shall not grant approval for such Testing before consulting with and informing IeSF (or any other international organization which is the ruling body for the Event). WADA's decision shall be final and not subject to appeal. Unless otherwise provided in the authorization to conduct Testing, such tests shall be considered Out-of-Competition tests. Results management for any such test shall be the responsibility of the Anti-Doping Organization initiating the test unless provided otherwise in the rules of the ruling body of the Event.

5.4 Test Distribution Planning

Consistent with the International Standard for Testing and Investigations, and in coordination with other Anti-Doping Organizations conducting Testing on the same Athletes, IeSF shall develop and implement an effective, intelligent and proportionate test distribution plan that prioritizes appropriately between disciplines, categories of Athletes, types of Testing, types of Samples collected, and types of Sample analysis, all in compliance with the requirements of the International Standard for Testing and Investigations. IeSF shall provide WADA upon request with a copy of its current test distribution plan.

5.5 Coordination of Testing

Where reasonably feasible, Testing shall be coordinated through ADAMS or another system approved by WADA in order to maximize the effectiveness of the combined Testing effort and to avoid unnecessary repetitive Testing.

5.6 Athlete Whereabouts Information

5.6.1 IeSF shall identify a Registered Testing Pool of those Athletes who are required to comply with the whereabouts requirements of Annex I to the International Standard for Testing and Investigations, and shall make available through ADAMS, a list which identifies those Athletes included in its Registered Testing Pool either by name or by clearly defined, specific criteria. IeSF shall coordinate with National Anti-Doping Organizations the identification of such Athletes and the collection of their whereabouts information. IeSF shall review and update as necessary its criteria for including Athletes in its Registered Testing Pool, and shall revise the membership of its Registered Testing Pool from time to time as appropriate in accordance with the set criteria. Athletes shall be notified before they are included in a Registered Testing Pool and when they are removed from that pool. Each Athlete in the Registered Testing Pool shall do the following, in each case in accordance with Annex I to the International Standard for Testing and Investigations: (a) advise IeSF of his/her whereabouts on a quarterly basis; (b) update that information as necessary so that it remains accurate and complete at all times; and (c) make him/herself available for Testing at such whereabouts

5.6.2 For purposes of Article 2.4, an Athlete's failure to comply with the requirements of the International Standard for Testing and Investigations shall be deemed a filing failure or a missed test (as defined in the International Standard for Testing and Investigations) where the conditions set forth in the International Standard for Testing and Investigations for declaring a filing failure or missed test are met.

5.6.3 An Athlete in IeSF's Registered Testing Pool shall continue to be subject to the obligation to comply with the whereabouts requirements of Annex I to the International Standard for Testing and Investigations unless and until (a) the Athlete gives written notice to IeSF that he/she has retired or (b) IeSF has informed him or her that he/she no longer satisfies the criteria for inclusion in IeSF's Registered Testing Pool.

5.6.4 Whereabouts information relating to an Athlete shall be shared (through ADAMS) with WADA and other Anti-Doping Organizations having authority to test that Athlete, shall be maintained in strict confidence at all times, shall be used exclusively for the purposes set out in Article 5.6 of the Code, and shall be destroyed in accordance with the International Standard for the Protection of Privacy and Personal Information once it is no longer relevant for these purposes.

5.7 Retired Athletes Returning to Competition

5.7.1 An Athlete in IeSF's Registered Testing Pool who has given notice of retirement to IeSF may not resume competing in International Events or National Events until he/she has given IeSF written notice of his/her intent to resume competing and has made him/herself available for Testing for a period of six months before returning to Competition, including (if requested) complying with the whereabouts requirements of Annex I to the International Standard for Testing and Investigations. WADA, in consultation with IeSF and the Athlete's National Anti-Doping Organization, may grant an exemption to the six-month written notice rule where the strict application of that rule would be manifestly unfair to an Athlete. This decision may be appealed under Article 13. Any competitive results obtained in violation of this Article 5.7.1 shall be Disqualified.

5.7.2 If an Athlete retires from sport while subject to a period of Ineligibility, the Athlete shall not resume competing in International Events or National Events until the Athlete has given six months prior written notice (or notice equivalent to the period of Ineligibility remaining as of the date the Athlete retired, if that period was longer than six months) to IeSF and to his/her National Anti-Doping Organization of his/her intent to resume competing and has made him/herself available for Testing for that notice period, including (if requested) complying with the whereabouts requirements of Annex I to the International Standard for Testing and Investigations.

5.8 Independent Observer Program

IeSF and the organizing committees for IeSF's Events, as well as the National Federations and the organizing committees for National Events, shall authorize and facilitate the Independent Observer Program at such Events.


Article 6Analysis of Samples

Samples shall be analyzed in accordance with the following principles:

6.1 Use of Accredited and Approved Laboratories

For purposes of Article 2.1, Samples shall be analyzed only in laboratories accredited or otherwise approved by WADA. The choice of the WADA-accredited or WADA-approved laboratory used for the Sample analysis shall be determined exclusively by IeSF.

6.2 Purpose of Analysis of Samples

6.2.1 Samples shall be analyzed to detect Prohibited Substances and Prohibited Methods and other substances as may be directed by WADA pursuant to the Monitoring Program described in Article 4.5 of the Code; or to assist IeSF profiling relevant parameters in an Athlete's urine, blood or other matrix, including DNA or genomic profiling; or for any other legitimate anti-doping purpose. Samples may be collected and stored for future analysis.

6.2.2 IeSF shall ask laboratories to analyze Samples in conformity with Article 6.4 of the Code and Article 4.7 of the International Standard for Testing and Investigations.

6.3 Research on Samples

No Sample may be used for research without the Athlete's written consent. Samples used for purposes other than Article 6.2 shall have any means of identification removed such that they cannot be traced back to a particular Athlete.

6.4 Standards for Sample Analysis and Reporting

Laboratories shall analyze Samples and report results in conformity with the International Standard for Laboratories. To ensure effective Testing, the Technical Document referenced at Article 5.4.1 of the Code will establish risk assessment-based Sample analysis menus appropriate for particular sports and sport disciplines, and laboratories shall analyze Samples in conformity with those menus, except as follows:

6.4.1 IeSF may request that laboratories analyze its Samples using more extensive menus than those described in the Technical Document.

6.4.2 IeSF may request that laboratories analyze its Samples using less extensive menus than those described in the Technical Document only if it has satisfied WADA that, because of the particular circumstances of its sport, as set out in its test distribution plan, less extensive analysis would be appropriate.

6.4.3 As provided in the International Standard for Laboratories, laboratories at their own initiative and expense may analyze Samples for Prohibited Substances or Prohibited Methods not included on the Sample analysis menu described in the Technical Document or specified by the Testing authority. Results from any such analysis shall be reported and have the same validity and consequence as any other analytical result.

6.5 Further Analysis of Samples

Any Sample may be stored and subsequently subjected to further analysis for the purposes set out in Article 6.2: (a) by WADA at any time; and/or (b) by IeSF at any time before both the A and B Sample analytical results (or A Sample result where B Sample analysis has been waived or will not be performed) have been communicated by IeSF to the Athlete as the asserted basis for an Article 2.1 anti-doping rule violation. Such further analysis of Samples shall conform to the requirements of the International Standard for Laboratories and the International Standard for Testing and Investigations.

Article 7Results Management

7.1 Responsibility for Conducting Results Management

7.1.1 The circumstances in which IeSF shall take responsibility for conducting results management in respect of anti-doping rule violations involving Athletes and other Persons under its jurisdiction shall be determined by reference to and in accordance with Article 7 of the Code.

7.1.2 The IeSF Competition Committee shall appoint a Doping Review Panel consisting of a Chair and 2 other members with experience in anti-doping. Each panel member shall serve a term of four years. When a potential violation is referred to the Doping Review Panel by IeSF, the Chair of the Doping Review Panel shall appoint one or more members of the Panel (which may include the Chair) to conduct the review discussed in this Article 7.

7.2 Review of Adverse Analytical Findings from Tests Initiated by IeSF

Results management in respect of the results of tests initiated by IeSF (including tests performed by WADA pursuant to agreement with IeSF) shall proceed as follows:

7.2.1 The results from all analyses must be sent to IeSF in encoded form, in a report signed by an authorized representative of the laboratory. All communication must be conducted confidentially and in conformity with ADAMS.

7.2.2 Upon receipt of an Adverse Analytical Finding, IeSF shall conduct a review to determine whether:  (a) an applicable TUE has been granted or will be granted as provided in the International Standard for Therapeutic Use Exemptions, or (b) there is any apparent departure from the International Standard for Testing and Investigations or International Standard for Laboratories that caused the Adverse Analytical Finding.

7.2.3 If the review of an Adverse Analytical Finding under Article 7.2.2 reveals an applicable TUE or departure from the International Standard for Testing and Investigations or the International Standard for Laboratories that caused the Adverse Analytical Finding, the entire test shall be considered negative and the Athlete, the Athlete's National Anti-Doping Organization and WADA shall be so informed.

7.3 Notification after Review Regarding Adverse Analytical Findings

7.3.1 If the review of an Adverse Analytical Finding under Article 7.2.2 does not reveal an applicable TUE or entitlement to a TUE as provided in the International Standard for Therapeutic Use Exemptions, or departure from the International Standard for Testing and Investigations or the International Standard for Laboratories that caused the Adverse Analytical Finding, IeSF shall promptly notify the Athlete, and simultaneously the Athlete's National Anti-Doping Organization and WADA, in the manner set out in Article 14.1, of: (a) the Adverse Analytical Finding; (b) the anti-doping rule violated; (c) the Athlete's right to promptly request the analysis of the B Sample or, failing such request, that the B Sample analysis may be deemed waived; (d) the scheduled date, time and place for the B Sample analysis if the Athlete or IeSF chooses to request an analysis of the B Sample; (e) the opportunity for the Athlete and/or the Athlete's representative to attend the B Sample opening and analysis in accordance with the International Standard for Laboratories if such analysis is requested; and (f) the Athlete's right to request copies of the A and B Sample laboratory documentation package which includes information as required by the International Standard for Laboratories. If IeSF decides not to bring forward the Adverse Analytical Finding as an anti-doping rule violation, it shall so notify the Athlete, the Athlete's National Anti-Doping Organization and WADA.

7.3.2 Where requested by the Athlete or IeSF, arrangements shall be made to analyze the B Sample in accordance with the International Standard for Laboratories. An Athlete may accept the A Sample analytical results by waiving the requirement for B Sample analysis. IeSF may nonetheless elect to proceed with the B Sample analysis.

7.3.3 The Athlete and/or his representative shall be allowed to be present at the analysis of the B Sample. Also, a representative of IeSF as well as a representative of the Athlete's National Federation shall be allowed to be present.

7.3.4 If the B Sample analysis does not confirm the A Sample analysis, then (unless IeSF takes the case forward as an anti-doping rule violation under Article 2.2) the entire test shall be considered negative and the Athlete, the Athlete's National Anti-Doping Organization and WADA shall be so informed.

7.3.5 If the B Sample analysis confirms the A Sample analysis, the findings shall be reported to the Athlete, the Athlete's National Anti-Doping Organization and to WADA.

7.4 Review of Atypical Findings

7.4.1 As provided in the International Standard for Laboratories, in some circumstances laboratories are directed to report the presence of Prohibited Substances, which may also be produced endogenously, as Atypical Findings, i.e., as findings that are subject to further investigation.

7.4.2 Upon receipt of an Atypical Finding, IeSF shall conduct a review to determine whether:  (a) an applicable TUE has been granted or will be granted as provided in the International Standard for Therapeutic Use Exemptions, or (b) there is any apparent departure from the International Standard for Testing and Investigations or International Standard for Laboratories that caused the Atypical Finding.

7.4.3 If the review of an Atypical Finding under Article 7.4.2 reveals an applicable TUE or a departure from the International Standard for Testing and Investigations or the International Standard for Laboratories that caused the Atypical Finding, the entire test shall be considered negative and the Athlete, the Athlete's National Anti-Doping Organization and WADA shall be so informed.

7.4.4 If that review does not reveal an applicable TUE or a departure from the International Standard for Testing and Investigations or the International Standard for Laboratories that caused the Atypical Finding, IeSF shall conduct the required investigation or cause it to be conducted. After the investigation is completed, either the Atypical Finding will be brought forward as an Adverse Analytical Finding, in accordance with Article 7.3.1, or else the Athlete, the Athlete's National Anti-Doping Organization and WADA shall be notified that the Atypical Finding will not be brought forward as an Adverse Analytical Finding.

7.4.5 IeSF will not provide notice of an Atypical Finding until it has completed its investigation and has decided whether it will bring the Atypical Finding forward as an Adverse Analytical Finding unless one of the following circumstances exists:

7.4.5.1 If IeSF determines the B Sample should be analyzed prior to the conclusion of its investigation, it may conduct the B Sample analysis after notifying the Athlete, with such notice to include a description of the Atypical Finding and the information described in Article 7.3.1(d)-(f).

7.4.5.2 If IeSF is asked (a) by a Major Event Organization shortly before one of its International Events, or (b) by a sport organization responsible for meeting an imminent deadline for selecting team members for an International Event, to disclose whether any Athlete identified on a list provided by the Major Event Organization or sport organization has a pending Atypical Finding, IeSF shall so advise the Major Event Organization or sports organization after first providing notice of the Atypical Finding to the Athlete.

7.5 Review of Atypical Passport Findings and Adverse Passport Findings

Review of Atypical Passport Findings and Adverse Passport Findings shall take place as provided in the International Standard for Testing and Investigations and International Standard for Laboratories.  At such time as IeSF is satisfied that an anti-doping rule violation has occurred, it shall promptly give the Athlete (and simultaneously the Athlete's National Anti-Doping Organization and WADA) notice of the anti-doping rule violation asserted and the basis of that assertion.

7.6 Review of Whereabouts Failures

IeSF shall review potential filing failures and missed tests, as defined in the International Standard for Testing and Investigations, in respect of Athletes who file their whereabouts information with IeSF, in accordance with Annex I to the International Standard for Testing and Investigations. At such time as IeSF is satisfied that an Article 2.4 anti-doping rule violation has occurred, it shall promptly give the Athlete (and simultaneously the Athlete's National Anti-Doping Organization and WADA) notice that it is asserting a violation of Article 2.4 and the basis of that assertion.

7.7 Review of Other Anti-Doping Rule Violations Not Covered by Articles 7.2–7.6

IeSF shall conduct any follow-up investigation required into a possible anti-doping rule violation not covered by Articles 7.2- 7.6. At such time as IeSF is satisfied that an anti-doping rule violation has occurred, it shall promptly give the Athlete or other Person (and simultaneously the Athlete's or other Person's National Anti-Doping Organization and WADA) notice of the anti-doping rule violation asserted and the basis of that assertion.

7.8 Identification of Prior Anti-Doping Rule Violations

Before giving an Athlete or other Person notice of an asserted anti-doping rule violation as provided above, IeSF shall refer to ADAMS and contact WADA and other relevant Anti-Doping Organizations to determine whether any prior anti-doping rule violation exists.

7.9 Provisional Suspensions

7.9.1 Mandatory Provisional Suspension: If analysis of an A Sample has resulted in an Adverse Analytical Finding for a Prohibited Substance that is not a Specified Substance, or for a Prohibited Method, and a review in accordance with Article 7.2.2 does not reveal an applicable TUE or departure from the International Standard for Testing and Investigations or the International Standard for Laboratories that caused the Adverse Analytical Finding, a Provisional Suspension shall be imposed upon or promptly after the  notification described in Articles 7.2, 7.3 or 7.5.

7.9.2 Optional Provisional Suspension: In case of an Adverse Analytical Finding for a Specified Substance, or in the case of any other anti-doping rule violations not covered by Article 7.9.1, IeSF may impose a Provisional Suspension on the Athlete or other Person against whom the anti-doping rule violation is asserted at any time after the review and notification described in Articles 7.2–7.7 and prior to the final hearing as described in Article 8.

7.9.3 Where a Provisional Suspension is imposed pursuant to Article 7.9.1 or Article 7.9.2, the Athlete or other Person shall be given either: (a) an opportunity for a Provisional Hearing either before or on a timely basis after imposition of the Provisional Suspension; or (b) an opportunity for an expedited final hearing in accordance with Article 8 on a timely basis after imposition of the Provisional Suspension. Furthermore, the Athlete or other Person has a right to appeal from the Provisional Suspension in accordance with Article 13.2 (save as set out in Article 7.9.3.1).

7.9.3.1 The Provisional Suspension may be lifted if the Athlete demonstrates to the hearing panel that the violation is likely to have involved a Contaminated Product.  A hearing panel's decision not to lift a mandatory Provisional Suspension on account of the Athlete's assertion regarding a Contaminated Product shall not be appealable.

7.9.4 If a Provisional Suspension is imposed based on an A Sample Adverse Analytical Finding and subsequent analysis of the B Sample does not confirm the A Sample analysis, then the Athlete shall not be subject to any further Provisional Suspension on account of a violation of Article 2.1. In circumstances where the Athlete (or the Athlete's team) has been removed from a Competition based on a violation of Article 2.1 and the subsequent B Sample analysis does not confirm the A Sample finding, then if it is still possible for the Athlete or team to be reinserted, without otherwise affecting the Competition, the Athlete or team may continue to take part in the Competition. In addition, the Athlete or team may thereafter take part in other Competitions in the same Event.

7.9.5 In all cases where an Athlete or other Person has been notified of an anti-doping rule violation but a Provisional Suspension has not been imposed on him or her, the Athlete or other Person shall be offered the opportunity to accept a Provisional Suspension voluntarily pending the resolution of the matter.

7.10 Resolution without a Hearing

7.10.1 An Athlete or other Person against whom an anti-doping rule violation is asserted may admit that violation at any time, waive a hearing, and accept the Consequences that are mandated by these Anti-Doping Rules or (where some discretion as to Consequences exists under these Anti-Doping Rules) that have been offered by IeSF.

7.10.2 Alternatively, if the Athlete or other Person against whom an anti-doping rule violation is asserted fails to dispute that assertion within the deadline specified in the notice sent by the IeSF asserting the violation, then he/she shall be deemed to have admitted the violation, to have waived a hearing, and to have accepted the Consequences that are mandated by these Anti-Doping Rules or (where some discretion as to Consequences exists under these Anti-Doping Rules) that have been offered by IeSF.

7.10.3 In cases where Article 7.10.1 or Article 7.10.2 applies, a hearing before a hearing panel shall not be required. Instead IeSF shall promptly issue a written decision confirming the commission of the anti-doping rule violation and the Consequences imposed as a result, and setting out the full reasons for any period of Ineligibility imposed, including (if applicable) a justification for why the maximum potential period of Ineligibility was not imposed. IeSF shall send copies of that decision to other Anti-Doping Organizations with a right to appeal under Article 13.2.3, and shall Publicly Disclose that decision in accordance with Article 14.3.2.

7.11 Notification of Results Management Decisions

In all cases where IeSF has asserted the commission of an anti-doping rule violation, withdrawn the assertion of an anti-doping rule violation, imposed a Provisional Suspension, or agreed with an Athlete or other Person on the imposition of Consequences without a hearing, IeSF shall give notice thereof in accordance with Article 14.2.1 to other Anti-Doping Organizations with a right to appeal under Article 13.2.3.

7.12 Retirement from Sport

If an Athlete or other Person retires while IeSF is conducting the results management process, IeSF retains jurisdiction to complete its results management process. If an Athlete or other Person retires before any results management process has begun, and IeSF would have had results management authority over the Athlete or other Person at the time the Athlete or other Person committed an anti-doping rule violation, IeSF has authority to conduct results management in respect of that anti-doping rule violation.

Article 8Right to a Fair Hearing

8.1 Principles for a Fair Hearing

8.1.1 When IeSF sends a notice to an Athlete or other Person asserting an anti-doping rule violation, and the Athlete or other Person does not waive a hearing in accordance with Article 7.10.1 or Article 7.10.2, then the case shall be referred to the IeSF Doping Hearing Panel appointed by the Competition Committee for hearing and adjudication.

8.1.2 Hearings shall be scheduled and completed within a reasonable time. Hearings held in connection with Events that are subject to these Anti-Doping Rules may be conducted by an expedited process where permitted by the hearing panel.

8.1.3 The IeSF Doping Hearing Panel shall determine the procedure to be followed at the hearing.

8.1.4 WADA and the National Federation of the Athlete or other Person may attend the hearing as observers. In any event, IeSF shall keep WADA fully apprised as to the status of pending cases and the result of all hearings.

8.1.5 The IeSF Doping Hearing Panel shall act in a fair and impartial manner towards all parties at all times.

8.2 Decisions

8.2.1 At the end of the hearing, or on a timely basis thereafter, the IeSF Doping Hearing Panel shall issue a written decision that includes the full reasons for the decision and for any period of Ineligibility imposed, including (if applicable) a justification for why the greatest potential Consequences were not imposed.

8.2.2 The decision may be appealed to the CAS as provided in Article 13. Copies of the decision shall be provided to the Athlete or other Person and to other Anti-Doping Organizations with a right to appeal under Article 13.2.3.

8.2.3 If no appeal is brought against the decision, then (a) if the decision is that an anti-doping rule violation was committed, the decision shall be Publicly Disclosed as provided in Article 14.3.2; but (b) if the decision is that no anti-doping rule violation was committed, then the decision shall only be Publicly Disclosed with the consent of the Athlete or other Person who is the subject of the decision. IeSF shall use reasonable efforts to obtain such consent, and if consent is obtained, shall Publicly Disclose the decision in its entirety or in such redacted form as the Athlete or other Person may approve.

8.2.4 The principles contained at Article 14.3.6 shall be applied in cases involving a Minor.

8.3 Single Hearing before CAS

Cases asserting anti-doping rule violations may be heard directly at CAS, with no requirement for a prior hearing, with the consent of the Athlete, IeSF, WADA, and any other Anti-Doping Organization that would have had a right to appeal a first instance hearing decision to CAS.

Article 9Automatic Disqualification of Individual Results

An anti-doping rule violation in Individual Sports in connection with an In-Competition test automatically leads to Disqualification of the result obtained in that Competition with all resulting Consequences, including forfeiture of any medals, points and prizes.

Article 10Sanctions on Individuals

10.1 Disqualification of Results in the Event during which an Anti-Doping Rule Violation Occurs

An anti-doping rule violation occurring during or in connection with an Event may, upon the decision of the ruling body of the Event, lead to Disqualification of all of the Athlete's individual results obtained in that Event with all Consequences, including forfeiture of all medals, points and prizes, except as provided in Article 10.1.1.

Factors to be included in considering whether to Disqualify other results in an Event might include, for example, the seriousness of the Athlete's anti-doping rule violation and whether the Athlete tested negative in the other Competitions.

10.1.1 If the Athlete establishes that he or she bears No Fault or Negligence for the violation, the Athlete's individual results in the other Competitions shall not be Disqualified, unless the Athlete's results in Competitions other than the Competition in which the anti-doping rule violation occurred were likely to have been affected by the Athlete's anti-doping rule violation.

10.2 Ineligibility for Presence, Use or Attempted Use, or Possession of a Prohibited Substance or Prohibited Method

The period of Ineligibility for a violation of Articles 2.1, 2.2 or 2.6 shall be as follows, subject to potential reduction or suspension pursuant to Articles 10.4, 10.5 or 10.6:

10.2.1 The period of Ineligibility shall be four years where:

10.2.1.1 The anti-doping rule violation does not involve a Specified Substance, unless the Athlete or other Person can establish that the anti-doping rule violation was not intentional.

10.2.1.2 The anti-doping rule violation involves a Specified Substance and IeSF can establish that the anti-doping rule violation was intentional.

10.2.2 If Article 10.2.1 does not apply, the period of Ineligibility shall be two years.

10.2.3 As used in Articles 10.2 and 10.3, the term “intentional” is meant to identify those Athletes who cheat. The term therefore requires that the Athlete or other Person engaged in conduct which he or she knew constituted an anti-doping rule violation or knew that there was a significant risk that the conduct might constitute or result in an anti-doping rule violation and manifestly disregarded that risk. An anti-doping rule violation resulting from an Adverse Analytical Finding for a substance which is only prohibited In-Competition shall be rebuttably presumed to be not intentional if the substance is a Specified Substance and the Athlete can establish that the Prohibited Substance was Used Out-of-Competition. An anti-doping rule violation resulting from an Adverse Analytical Finding for a substance which is only prohibited In-Competition shall not be considered intentional if the substance is not a Specified Substance and the Athlete can establish that the Prohibited Substance was Used Out-of-Competition in a context unrelated to sport performance.

10.3 Ineligibility for Other Anti-Doping Rule Violations

The period of Ineligibility for anti-doping rule violations other than as provided in Article 10.2 shall be as follows, unless Articles 10.5 or 10.6 are applicable:

10.3.1 For violations of Article 2.3 or Article 2.5, the period of Ineligibility shall be four years unless, in the case of failing to submit to Sample collection, the Athlete can establish that the commission of the anti-doping rule violation was not intentional (as defined in Article 10.2.3), in which case the period of Ineligibility shall be two years.

10.3.2 For violations of Article 2.4, the period of Ineligibility shall be two years, subject to reduction down to a minimum of one year, depending on the Athlete's degree of Fault. The flexibility between two years and one year of Ineligibility in this Article is not available to Athletes where a pattern of last-minute whereabouts changes or other conduct raises a serious suspicion that the Athlete was trying to avoid being available for Testing.

10.3.3 For violations of Article 2.7 or 2.8, the period of Ineligibility shall be a minimum of four years up to lifetime Ineligibility, depending on the seriousness of the violation. An Article 2.7 or Article 2.8 violation involving a Minor shall be considered a particularly serious violation, and, if committed by Athlete Support Personnel for violations other than for Specified Substances, shall result in lifetime Ineligibility for Athlete Support Personnel.  In addition, significant violations of Article 2.7 or 2.8, which may also violate non-sporting laws and regulations, shall be reported to the competent administrative, professional or judicial authorities.

10.3.4 For violations of Article 2.9, the period of Ineligibility imposed shall be a minimum of two years, up to four years, depending on the seriousness of the violation.

10.3.5 For violations of Article 2.10, the period of Ineligibility shall be two years, subject to reduction down to a minimum of one year, depending on the Athlete or other Person's degree of Fault and other circumstances of the case.

10.4 Elimination of the Period of Ineligibility where there is No Fault or Negligence

If an Athlete or other Person establishes in an individual case that he or she bears No Fault or Negligence, then the otherwise applicable period of Ineligibility shall be eliminated.

10.5 Reduction of the Period of Ineligibility based on No Significant Fault or Negligence

10.5.1 Reduction of Sanctions for Specified Substances or Contaminated Products for Violations of Article 2.1, 2.2 or 2.6.

10.5.1.1 Specified Substances

Where the anti-doping rule violation involves a Specified Substance, and the Athlete or other Person can establish No Significant Fault or Negligence, then the period of Ineligibility shall be, at a minimum, a reprimand and no period of Ineligibility, and at a maximum, two years of Ineligibility, depending on the Athlete's or other Person's degree of Fault.

10.5.1.2 Contaminated Products

In cases where the Athlete or other Person can establish No Significant Fault or Negligence and that the detected Prohibited Substance came from a Contaminated Product, then the period of Ineligibility shall be, at a minimum, a reprimand and no period of Ineligibility, and at a maximum, two years Ineligibility, depending on the Athlete's or other Person's degree of Fault.

10.5.2 Application of No Significant Fault or Negligence beyond the Application of Article 10.5.1

If an Athlete or other Person establishes in an individual case where Article 10.5.1 is not applicable that he or she bears No Significant Fault or Negligence, then, subject to further reduction or elimination as provided in Article 10.6, the otherwise applicable period of Ineligibility may be reduced based on the Athlete or other Person's degree of Fault, but the reduced period of Ineligibility may not be less than one-half of the period of Ineligibility otherwise applicable.  If the otherwise applicable period of Ineligibility is a lifetime, the reduced period under this Article may be no less than eight years.

10.6 Elimination, Reduction, or Suspension of Period of Ineligibility or other Consequences for Reasons Other than Fault

10.6.1 Substantial Assistance in Discovering or Establishing Anti-Doping Rule Violations

10.6.1.1 IeSF may, prior to a final appellate decision under Article 13 or the expiration of the time to appeal, suspend a part of the period of Ineligibility imposed in an individual case in which it has results management authority where the Athlete or other Person has provided Substantial Assistance to an Anti-Doping Organization, criminal authority or professional disciplinary body which results in: (i) the Anti-Doping Organization discovering or bringing forward an anti-doping rule violation by another Person, or (ii) which results in a criminal or disciplinary body discovering or bringing forward a criminal offense or the breach of professional rules committed by another Person and the information provided by the Person providing Substantial Assistance is made available to IeSF. After a final appellate decision under Article 13 or the expiration of time to appeal, IeSF may only suspend a part of the otherwise applicable period of Ineligibility with the approval of WADA. The extent to which the otherwise applicable period of Ineligibility may be suspended shall be based on the seriousness of the anti-doping rule violation committed by the Athlete or other Person and the significance of the Substantial Assistance provided by the Athlete or other Person to the effort to eliminate doping in sport. No more than three-quarters of the otherwise applicable period of Ineligibility may be suspended.  If the otherwise applicable period of Ineligibility is a lifetime, the non-suspended period under this Article must be no less than eight years. If the Athlete or other Person fails to continue to cooperate and to provide the complete and credible Substantial Assistance upon which a suspension of the period of Ineligibility was based, IeSF shall reinstate the original period of Ineligibility. If IeSF decides to reinstate a suspended period of Ineligibility or decides not to reinstate a suspended period of Ineligibility, that decision may be appealed by any Person entitled to appeal under Article 13.

10.6.1.2 To further encourage Athletes and other Persons to provide Substantial Assistance to Anti-Doping Organizations, at the request of IeSF or at the request of the Athlete or other Person who has (or has been asserted to have) committed an anti-doping rule violation, WADA may agree at any stage of the results management process, including after a final appellate decision under Article 13, to what it considers to be an appropriate suspension of the otherwise-applicable period of Ineligibility and other Consequences.  In exceptional circumstances, WADA may agree to suspensions of the period of Ineligibility and other Consequences for Substantial Assistance greater than those otherwise provided in this Article, or even no period of Ineligibility, and/or no return of prize money or payment of fines or costs.  WADA's approval shall be subject to reinstatement of sanction, as otherwise provided in this Article.  Notwithstanding Article 13, WADA's decisions in the context of this Article may not be appealed by any other Anti-Doping Organization

10.6.1.3 If IeSF suspends any part of an otherwise applicable sanction because of Substantial Assistance, then notice providing justification for the decision shall be provided to the other Anti-Doping Organizations with a right to appeal under Article 13.2.3 as provided in Article 14.2. In unique circumstances where WADA determines that it would be in the best interest of anti-doping, WADA may authorize IeSF to enter into appropriate confidentiality agreements limiting or delaying the disclosure of the Substantial Assistance agreement or the nature of Substantial Assistance being provided.

10.6.2 Admission of an Anti-Doping Rule Violation in the Absence of Other Evidence

Where an Athlete or other Person voluntarily admits the commission of an anti-doping rule violation before having received notice of a Sample collection which could establish an anti-doping rule violation (or, in the case of an anti-doping rule violation other than Article 2.1, before receiving first notice of the admitted violation pursuant to Article 7) and that admission is the only reliable evidence of the violation at the time of admission, then the period of Ineligibility may be reduced, but not below one-half of the period of Ineligibility otherwise applicable.

10.6.3 Prompt Admission of an Anti-Doping Rule Violation after being Confronted with a Violation Sanctionable under Article 10.2.1 or Article 10.3.1

An Athlete or other Person potentially subject to a four-year sanction under Article 10.2.1 or 10.3.1 (for evading or refusing Sample Collection or Tampering with Sample Collection), by promptly admitting the asserted anti-doping rule violation after being confronted by IeSF, and also upon the approval and at the discretion of both WADA and IeSF, may receive a reduction in the period of Ineligibility down to a minimum of two years, depending on the seriousness of the violation and the Athlete or other Person's degree of Fault.

10.6.4 Application of Multiple Grounds for Reduction of a Sanction

Where an Athlete or other Person establishes entitlement to reduction in sanction under more than one provision of Article 10.4, 10.5 or 10.6, before applying any reduction or suspension under Article 10.6, the otherwise applicable period of Ineligibility shall be determined in accordance with Articles 10.2, 10.3, 10.4, and 10.5. If the Athlete or other Person establishes entitlement to a reduction or suspension of the period of Ineligibility under Article 10.6, then the period of Ineligibility may be reduced or suspended, but not below one-fourth of the otherwise applicable period of Ineligibility.

10.7 Multiple Violations

10.7.1 For an Athlete or other Person's second anti-doping rule violation, the period of Ineligibility shall be the greater of:

(a) six months;

(b) one-half of the period of Ineligibility imposed for the first anti-doping rule violation without taking into account any reduction under Article 10.6; or

(c) twice the period of Ineligibility otherwise applicable to the second anti-doping rule violation treated as if it were a first violation, without taking into account any reduction under Article 10.6.

The period of Ineligibility established above may then be further reduced by the application of Article 10.6.

10.7.2 A third anti-doping rule violation will always result in a lifetime period of Ineligibility, except if the third violation fulfills the condition for elimination or reduction of the period of Ineligibility under Article 10.4 or 10.5, or involves a violation of Article 2.4. In these particular cases, the period of Ineligibility shall be from eight years to lifetime Ineligibility.

10.7.3 An anti-doping rule violation for which an Athlete or other Person has established No Fault or Negligence shall not be considered a prior violation for purposes of this Article.

10.7.4 Additional Rules for Certain Potential Multiple Violations

10.7.4.1 For purposes of imposing sanctions under Article 10.7, an anti-doping rule violation will only be considered a second violation if IeSF can establish that the Athlete or other Person committed the second anti-doping rule violation after the Athlete or other Person received notice pursuant to Article 7, or after IeSF made reasonable efforts to give notice of the first anti-doping rule violation. If IeSF cannot establish this, the violations shall be considered together as one single first violation, and the sanction imposed shall be based on the violation that carries the more severe sanction.

10.7.4.2 If, after the imposition of a sanction for a first anti-doping rule violation, IeSF discovers facts involving an anti-doping rule violation by the Athlete or other Person which occurred prior to notification regarding the first violation, then IeSF shall impose an additional sanction based on the sanction that could have been imposed if the two violations had been adjudicated at the same time. Results in all Competitions dating back to the earlier anti-doping rule violation will be Disqualified as provided in Article 10.8.

10.7.5 Multiple Anti-Doping Rule Violations during Ten-Year Period

For purposes of Article 10.7, each anti-doping rule violation must take place within the same ten-year period in order to be considered multiple violations.

10.8 Disqualification of Results in Competitions Subsequent to Sample Collection or Commission of an Anti-Doping Rule Violation

In addition to the automatic Disqualification of the results in the Competition which produced the positive Sample under Article 9, all other competitive results of the Athlete obtained from the date a positive Sample was collected (whether In-Competition or Out-of-Competition), or other anti-doping rule violation occurred, through the commencement of any Provisional Suspension or Ineligibility period, shall, unless fairness requires otherwise, be Disqualified with all of the resulting Consequences including forfeiture of any medals, points and prizes.

10.9 Allocation of CAS Cost Awards and Forfeited Prize Money

The priority for repayment of CAS cost awards and forfeited prize money shall be:  first, payment of costs awarded by CAS; and second, reimbursement of the expenses of IeSF.

10.10 Financial Consequences

Where an Athlete or other Person commits an anti-doping rule violation, IeSF may, in its discretion and subject to the principle of proportionality, elect to a) recover from the Athlete or other Person costs associated with the anti-doping rule violation, regardless of the period of Ineligibility imposed and/or b) fine the Athlete or other Person in an amount up to $1,000 U.S. Dollars, only in cases where the maximum period of Ineligibility otherwise applicable has already been imposed.

The imposition of a financial sanction or the IeSF's recovery of costs shall not be considered a basis for reducing the Ineligibility or other sanction which would otherwise be applicable under these Anti-Doping Rules or the Code.

10.11 Commencement of Ineligibility Period

Except as provided below, the period of Ineligibility shall start on the date of the final hearing decision providing for Ineligibility or, if the hearing is waived or there is no hearing, on the date Ineligibility is accepted or otherwise imposed.

10.11.1 Delays Not Attributable to the Athlete or other Person

Where there have been substantial delays in the hearing process or other aspects of Doping Control not attributable to the Athlete or other Person, IeSF may start the period of Ineligibility at an earlier date commencing as early as the date of Sample collection or the date on which another anti-doping rule violation last occurred. All competitive results achieved during the period of Ineligibility, including retroactive Ineligibility, shall be Disqualified.

10.11.2 Timely Admission

Where the Athlete or other Person promptly (which, in all events, for an Athlete means before the Athlete competes again) admits the anti-doping rule violation after being confronted with the anti-doping rule violation by IeSF, the period of Ineligibility may start as early as the date of Sample collection or the date on which another anti-doping rule violation last occurred. In each case, however, where this Article is applied, the Athlete or other Person shall serve at least one-half of the period of Ineligibility going forward from the date the Athlete or other Person accepted the imposition of a sanction, the date of a hearing decision imposing a sanction, or the date the sanction is otherwise imposed. This Article shall not apply where the period of Ineligibility has already been reduced under Article 10.6.3.

10.11.3 Credit for Provisional Suspension or Period of Ineligibility Served

10.11.3.1 If a Provisional Suspension is imposed and respected by the Athlete or other Person, then the Athlete or other Person shall receive a credit for such period of Provisional Suspension against any period of Ineligibility which may ultimately be imposed. If a period of Ineligibility is served pursuant to a decision that is subsequently appealed, then the Athlete or other Person shall receive a credit for such period of Ineligibility served against any period of Ineligibility which may ultimately be imposed on appeal.

10.11.3.2 If an Athlete or other Person voluntarily accepts a Provisional Suspension in writing from IeSF and thereafter respects the Provisional Suspension, the Athlete or other Person shall receive a credit for such period of voluntary Provisional Suspension against any period of Ineligibility which may ultimately be imposed. A copy of the Athlete or other Person's voluntary acceptance of a Provisional Suspension shall be provided promptly to each party entitled to receive notice of an asserted anti-doping rule violation under Article 14.1.

10.11.3.3 No credit against a period of Ineligibility shall be given for any time period before the effective date of the Provisional Suspension or voluntary Provisional Suspension regardless of whether the Athlete elected not to compete or was suspended by his or her team.

10.11.3.4 In Team Sports, where a period of Ineligibility is imposed upon a team, unless fairness requires otherwise, the period of Ineligibility shall start on the date of the final hearing decision providing for Ineligibility or, if the hearing is waived, on the date Ineligibility is accepted or otherwise imposed. Any period of team Provisional Suspension (whether imposed or voluntarily accepted) shall be credited against the total period of Ineligibility to be served.

10.12 Status During Ineligibility

10.12.1 Prohibition Against Participation During Ineligibility

No Athlete or other Person who has been declared Ineligible may, during the period of Ineligibility, participate in any capacity in a Competition or activity (other than authorized anti-doping education or rehabilitation programs) authorized or organized by IeSF or any National Federation or a club or other member organization of IeSF or any National Federation, or in Competitions authorized or organized by any professional league or any international or national level Event organization or any elite or national-level sporting activity funded by a governmental agency.

An Athlete or other Person subject to a period of Ineligibility longer than four years may, after completing four years of the period of Ineligibility, participate as an Athlete in local sport events not sanctioned or otherwise under the jurisdiction of a Code Signatory or member of a Code Signatory, but only so long as the local sport event is not at a level that could otherwise qualify such Athlete or other Person directly or indirectly to compete in (or accumulate points toward) a national championship or International Event, and does not involve the Athlete or other Person working in any capacity with Minors.

An Athlete or other Person subject to a period of Ineligibility shall remain subject to Testing.

10.12.2 Return to Training

As an exception to Article 10.12.1, an Athlete may return to train with a team or to use the facilities of a club or other member organization of IeSF's member organization during the shorter of: (1) the last two months of the Athlete's period of Ineligibility, or (2) the last one-quarter of the period of Ineligibility imposed.

10.12.3 Violation of the Prohibition of Participation During Ineligibility

Where an Athlete or other Person who has been declared Ineligible violates the prohibition against participation during Ineligibility described in Article 10.12.1, the results of such participation shall be Disqualified and a new period of Ineligibility equal in length up to the original period of Ineligibility shall be added to the end of the original period of Ineligibility. The new period of Ineligibility may be adjusted based on the Athlete or other Person's degree of Fault and other circumstances of the case. The determination of whether an Athlete or other Person has violated the prohibition against participation, and whether an adjustment is appropriate, shall be made by IeSF. This decision may be appealed under Article 13.

Where an Athlete Support Person or other Person assists a Person in violating the prohibition against participation during Ineligibility, IeSF shall impose sanctions for a violation of Article 2.9 for such assistance.

10.12.4 Withholding of Financial Support during Ineligibility

In addition, for any anti-doping rule violation not involving a reduced sanction as described in Article 10.4 or 10.5, some or all sport-related financial support or other sport-related benefits received by such Person will be withheld by IeSF and its National Federations.

10.13 Automatic Publication of Sanction

A mandatory part of each sanction shall include automatic publication, as provided in Article 14.3.

Article 11Consequences to Teams

11.1 Testing of Team Sports

Where more than one member of a team in a Team Sport has been notified of an anti-doping rule violation under Article 7 in connection with an Event, the ruling body for the Event shall conduct appropriate Target Testing of the team during the Event Period.

11.2 Consequences for Team Sports

If more than two members of a team in a Team Sport are found to have committed an anti-doping rule violation during an Event Period, the ruling body of the Event shall impose an appropriate sanction on the team (e.g., loss of points, Disqualification from a Competition or Event, or other sanction) in addition to any Consequences imposed upon the individual Athletes committing the anti-doping rule violation.

11.3 Event Ruling Body may Establish Stricter Consequences for Team Sports

The ruling body for an Event may elect to establish rules for the Event which impose Consequences for Team Sports stricter than those in Article 11.2 for purposes of the Event.

Article 12Sanctions and Costs Assessed against Sporting Bodies

12.1 Sanctions and Costs Assessed against Sporting Bodies

IeSF has the authority to withhold some or all funding or other non-financial support to National Federations that are not in compliance with these Anti-Doping Rules.

12.2 National Federations shall be obligated to reimburse IeSF for all costs (including but not limited to laboratory fees, hearing expenses and travel) related to a violation of these Anti-Doping Rules committed by an Athlete or other Person affiliated with that National Federation.

12.3 IeSF may elect to take additional disciplinary action against National Federations with respect to recognition, the eligibility of its officials and Athletes to participate in International Events and fines based on the following:

12.3.1 Four or more violations of these Anti-Doping Rules (other than violations involving Article 2.4) are committed by Athletes or other Persons affiliated with a National Federation within a 12-month period in testing conducted by IeSF or Anti-Doping Organizations other than the National Federation or its National Anti-Doping Organization. In such event IeSF may in its discretion elect to: (a) ban all officials from that National Federation for participation in any IeSF activities for a period of up to two years and/or (b) fine the National Federation in an amount up to $ 1,000 U.S. Dollars. (For purposes of this Rule, any fine paid pursuant to Rule 12.3.2 shall be credited against any fine assessed.)

12.3.1.1 If four or more violations of these Anti-Doping Rules (other than violations involving Articles 2.4) are committed in addition to the violations described in Article 12.3.1 by Athletes or other Persons affiliated with a National Federation within a 12-month period in Testing conducted by IeSF or Anti-Doping Organizations other than the National Federation or its National Anti-Doping Organization, then IeSF may suspend that National Federation's membership for a period of up to 4 years.

12.3.2 More than one Athlete or other Person from a National Federation commits an Anti-Doping Rule violation during an International Event. In such event IeSF may fine that National Federation in an amount up to $ 1,000 U.S. Dollars.

12.3.3 A National Federation has failed to make diligent efforts to keep IeSF informed about an Athlete's whereabouts after receiving a request for that information from IeSF. In such event IeSF may fine the National Federation in an amount up to $ 500 U.S. Dollars per Athlete in addition to all of the IeSF costs incurred in Testing that National Federation's Athletes.

Article 13Appeals

13.1 Decisions Subject to Appeal

Decisions made under these Anti-Doping Rules may be appealed as set forth below in Article 13.2 through 13.7 or as otherwise provided in these Anti-Doping Rules, the Code or the International Standards. Such decisions shall remain in effect while under appeal unless the appellate body orders otherwise.  Before an appeal is commenced, any post-decision review provided in the Anti-Doping Organization's rules must be exhausted, provided that such review respects the principles set forth in Article 13.2.2 below (except as provided in Article 13.1.3).

13.1.1 Scope of Review Not Limited

The scope of review on appeal includes all issues relevant to the matter and is expressly not limited to the issues or scope of review before the initial decision maker.

13.1.2 CAS Shall Not Defer to the Findings Being Appealed

In making its decision, CAS need not give deference to the discretion exercised by the body whose decision is being appealed.

13.1.3 WADA Not Required to Exhaust Internal Remedies

Where WADA has a right to appeal under Article 13 and no other party has appealed a final decision within IeSF's process, WADA may appeal such decision directly to CAS without having to exhaust other remedies in IeSF's process.

13.2 Appeals from Decisions Regarding Anti-Doping Rule Violations, Consequences, Provisional Suspensions, Recognition of Decisions and Jurisdiction

A decision that an anti-doping rule violation was committed, a decision imposing Consequences or not imposing Consequences for an anti-doping rule violation, or a decision that no anti-doping rule violation was committed; a decision that an anti-doping rule violation proceeding cannot go forward for procedural reasons (including, for example, prescription); a decision by WADA not to grant an exception to the six months notice requirement for a retired Athlete to return to Competition under Article 5.7.1; a decision by WADA assigning results management under Article 7.1 of the Code; a decision by IeSF not to bring forward an Adverse Analytical Finding or an Atypical Finding as an anti-doping rule violation, or a decision not to go forward with an anti-doping rule violation after an investigation under Article 7.7; a decision to impose a Provisional Suspension as a result of a Provisional Hearing; IeSF's failure to comply with Article 7.9; a decision that IeSF lacks jurisdiction to rule on an alleged anti-doping rule violation or its Consequences; a decision to suspend, or not suspend, a period of Ineligibility or to reinstate, or not reinstate, a suspended period of Ineligibility under Article 10.6.1; a decision under Article 10.12.3; and a decision by IeSF not to recognize another Anti-Doping Organization's decision under Article 15, may be appealed exclusively as provided in Articles 13.2 – 13.7.

13.2.1 Appeals Involving International-Level Athletes or International Events

In cases arising from participation in an International Event or in cases involving International-Level Athletes, the decision may be appealed exclusively to CAS.

13.2.2 Appeals Involving Other Athletes or Other Persons

In cases where Article 13.2.1 is not applicable, the decision may be appealed to a national-level appeal body, being an independent and impartial body established in accordance with rules adopted by the National Anti-Doping Organization having jurisdiction over the Athlete or other Person. The rules for such appeal shall respect the following principles:  a timely hearing; a fair and impartial hearing panel; the right to be represented by counsel at the Person's own expense; and a timely, written, reasoned decision.  If the National Anti-Doping Organization has not established such a body, the decision may be appealed to CAS in accordance with the provisions applicable before such court.

13.2.3 Persons Entitled to Appeal

In cases under Article 13.2.1, the following parties shall have the right to appeal to CAS:  (a) the Athlete or other Person who is the subject of the decision being appealed; (b) the other party to the case in which the decision was rendered; (c) IeSF; (d) the National Anti-Doping Organization of the Person's country of residence or countries where the Person is a national or license holder; (e) the International Olympic Committee or International Paralympic Committee, as applicable, where the decision may have an effect in relation to the Olympic Games or Paralympic Games, including decisions affecting eligibility for the Olympic Games or Paralympic Games; and (f) WADA.

In cases under Article 13.2.2, the parties having the right to appeal to the national-level appeal body shall be as provided in the National Anti-Doping Organization's rules but, at a minimum, shall include the following parties: (a) the Athlete or other Person who is the subject of the decision being appealed; (b) the other party to the case in which the decision was rendered; (c) IeSF; (d) the National Anti-Doping Organization of the Person's country of residence; (e) the International Olympic Committee or International Paralympic Committee, as applicable, where the decision may have an effect in relation to the Olympic Games or Paralympic Games, including decisions affecting eligibility for the Olympic Games or Paralympic Games; and (f) WADA.  For cases under Article 13.2.2, WADA, the International Olympic Committee, the International Paralympic Committee, and IeSF shall also have the right to appeal to CAS with respect to the decision of the national-level appeal body. Any party filing an appeal shall be entitled to assistance from CAS to obtain all relevant information from the Anti-Doping Organization whose decision is being appealed and the information shall be provided if CAS so directs.

Notwithstanding any other provision herein, the only Person who may appeal from a Provisional Suspension is the Athlete or other Person upon whom the Provisional Suspension is imposed.

13.2.4 Cross Appeals and other Subsequent Appeals Allowed

Cross appeals and other subsequent appeals by any respondent named in cases brought to CAS under the Code are specifically permitted. Any party with a right to appeal under this Article 13 must file a cross appeal or subsequent appeal at the latest with the party's answer.

13.3 Failure to Render a Timely Decision

Where, in a particular case, IeSF fails to render a decision with respect to whether an anti-doping rule violation was committed within a reasonable deadline set by WADA, WADA may elect to appeal directly to CAS as if IeSF had rendered a decision finding no anti-doping rule violation. If the CAS hearing panel determines that an anti-doping rule violation was committed and that WADA acted reasonably in electing to appeal directly to CAS, then WADA's costs and attorney fees in prosecuting the appeal shall be reimbursed to WADA by IeSF.

13.4 Appeals Relating to TUEs

TUE decisions may be appealed exclusively as provided in Article 4.4.

13.5 Notification of Appeal Decisions

Any Anti-Doping Organization that is a party to an appeal shall promptly provide the appeal decision to the Athlete or other Person and to the other Anti-Doping Organizations that would have been entitled to appeal under Article 13.2.3 as provided under Article. 14.2.

13.6 Appeal from Decisions Pursuant to Article 12

Decisions by IeSF pursuant to Article 12 may be appealed exclusively to CAS by the National Federation.

13.7 Time for Filing Appeals

13.7.1 Appeals to CAS

The time to file an appeal to CAS shall be twenty-one days from the date of receipt of the decision by the appealing party. The above notwithstanding, the following shall apply in connection with appeals filed by a party entitled to appeal but which was not a party to the proceedings that led to the decision being appealed:

a) Within fifteen days from notice of the decision, such party/ies shall have the right to request a copy of the case file from the body that issued the decision;

b) If such a request is made within the fifteen-day period, then the party making such request shall have twenty-one days from receipt of the file to file an appeal to CAS.

The above notwithstanding, the filing deadline for an appeal filed by WADA shall be the later of:

a) Twenty-one days after the last day on which any other party in the case could have appealed; or

b) Twenty-one days after WADA's receipt of the complete file relating to the decision.

13.7.2 Appeals under Article 13.2.2

The time to file an appeal to an independent and impartial body established at national level in accordance with rules established by the National Anti-Doping Organization shall be indicated by the same rules of the National Anti-Doping Organization.

The above notwithstanding, the filing deadline for an appeal or intervention filed by WADA shall be the later of:

a) Twenty-one days after the last day on which any other party in the case could have appealed, or

b) Twenty-one days after WADA's receipt of the complete file relating to the decision.

Article 14Confidentiality and Reporting

14.1 Information Concerning Adverse Analytical Findings, Atypical Findings, and Other Asserted Anti-Doping Rule Violations

14.1.1 Notice of Anti-Doping Rule Violations to Athletes and other Persons

Notice to Athletes or other Persons of anti-doping rule violations asserted against them shall occur as provided under Articles 7 and 14 of these Anti-Doping Rules.  Notice to an Athlete or other Person who is a member of a National Federation may be accomplished by delivery of the notice to the National Federation.

14.1.2 Notice of Anti-Doping Rule Violations to National Anti-Doping Organizations and WADA

Notice of the assertion of an anti-doping rule violation to National Anti-Doping Organizations and WADA shall occur as provided under Articles 7 and 14 of these Anti-Doping Rules, simultaneously with the notice to the Athlete or other Person.

14.1.3 Content of an Anti-Doping Rule Violation Notice

Notification of an anti-doping rule violation under Article 2.1 shall include: the Athlete's name, country, sport and discipline within the sport, the Athlete's competitive level, whether the test was In-Competition or Out-of-Competition, the date of Sample collection, the analytical result reported by the laboratory, and other information as required by the International Standard for Testing and Investigations.

Notice of anti-doping rule violations other than under Article 2.1 shall include the rule violated and the basis of the asserted violation.

14.1.4 Status Reports

Except with respect to investigations which have not resulted in notice of an anti-doping rule violation pursuant to Article 14.1.1, National Anti-Doping Organizations and WADA shall be regularly updated on the status and findings of any review or proceedings conducted pursuant to Article 7, 8 or 13 and shall be provided with a prompt written reasoned explanation or decision explaining the resolution of the matter.

14.1.5 Confidentiality

The recipient organizations shall not disclose this information beyond those Persons with a need to know (which would include the appropriate personnel at the applicable National Olympic Committee, National Federation, and team in a Team Sport) until IeSF has made Public Disclosure or has failed to make Public Disclosure as required in Article 14.3.

14.2 Notice of Anti-Doping Rule Violation Decisions and Request for Files

14.2.1 Anti-doping rule violation decisions rendered pursuant to Article 7.11, 8.2, 10.4, 10.5, 10.6, 10.12.3 or 13.5 shall include the full reasons for the decision, including, if applicable, a justification for why the greatest possible Consequences were not imposed.  Where the decision is not in English, IeSF shall provide a short English summary of the decision and the supporting reasons.

14.2.2 An Anti-Doping Organization having a right to appeal a decision received pursuant to Article 14.2.1 may, within fifteen days of receipt, request a copy of the full case file pertaining to the decision.

14.3 Public Disclosure

14.3.1 The identity of any Athlete or other Person who is asserted by IeSF to have committed an anti-doping rule violation, may be Publicly Disclosed by IeSF only after notice has been provided to the Athlete or other Person in accordance with Article 7.3, 7.4, 7.5, 7.6 or 7.7 and simultaneously to WADA and the National Anti-Doping Organization of the Athlete or other Person in accordance with Article 14.1.2.

14.3.2 No later than twenty days after it has been determined in a final appellate decision under Article 13.2.1 or 13.2.2, or such appeal has been waived, or a hearing in accordance with Article 8 has been waived, or the assertion of an anti-doping rule violation has not been timely challenged, IeSF must Publicly Report the disposition of the matter, including the sport, the anti-doping rule violated, the name of the Athlete or other Person committing the violation, the Prohibited Substance or Prohibited Method involved (if any), and the Consequences imposed. IeSF must also Publicly Report within twenty days the results of final appeal decisions concerning anti-doping rule violations, including the information described above.

14.3.3 In any case where it is determined, after a hearing or appeal, that the Athlete or other Person did not commit an anti-doping rule violation, the decision may be Publicly Disclosed only with the consent of the Athlete or other Person who is the subject of the decision. IeSF shall use reasonable efforts to obtain such consent. If consent is obtained, IeSF shall Publicly Disclose the decision in its entirety or in such redacted form as the Athlete or other Person may approve.

14.3.4 Publication shall be accomplished at a minimum by placing the required information on the IeSF's website or publishing it through other means and leaving the information up for the longer of one month or the duration of any period of Ineligibility.

14.3.5 Neither IeSF, nor its National Federations, nor any official of either body, shall publicly comment on the specific facts of any pending case (as opposed to general description of process and science) except in response to public comments attributed to the Athlete or other Person against whom an anti-doping rule violation is asserted, or their representatives.

14.3.6 The mandatory Public Reporting required in Article 14.3.2 shall not be required where the Athlete or other Person who has been found to have committed an anti-doping rule violation is a Minor. Any optional Public Reporting in a case involving a Minor shall be proportionate to the facts and circumstances of the case.

14.4 Statistical Reporting

IeSF shall publish at least annually a general statistical report of its Doping Control activities, with a copy provided to WADA. IeSF may also publish reports showing the name of each Athlete tested and the date of each Testing.

14.5  Doping Control Information Clearinghouse

To facilitate coordinated test distribution planning and to avoid unnecessary duplication in Testing by the various Anti-Doping Organizations, IeSF shall report all In-Competition and Out-of-Competition tests on such Athletes to the WADA clearinghouse, using ADAMS, as soon as possible after such tests have been conducted.  This information will be made accessible, where appropriate and in accordance with the applicable rules, to the Athlete, the Athlete's National Anti-Doping Organization and any other Anti-Doping Organizations with Testing authority over the Athlete.

14.6  Data Privacy.

14.6.1 IeSF may collect, store, process or disclose personal information relating to Athletes and other Persons where necessary and appropriate to conduct their anti-doping activities under the Code, the International Standards (including specifically the International Standard for the Protection of Privacy and Personal Information) and these Anti-Doping Rules.

14.6.2 Any Participant who submits information including personal data to any Person in accordance with these Anti-Doping Rules shall be deemed to have agreed, pursuant to applicable data protection laws and otherwise, that such information may be collected, processed, disclosed and used by such Person for the purposes of the implementation of these Anti-Doping Rules, in accordance with the International Standard for the Protection of Privacy and Personal Information and otherwise as required to implement these Anti-Doping Rules.

Article 15Application and Recognition of Decisions

15.1 Subject to the right to appeal provided in Article 13, Testing, hearing results or other final adjudications of any Signatory which are consistent with the Code and are within that Signatory's authority shall be applicable worldwide and shall be recognized and respected by IeSF and all its National Federations.

15.2 IeSF and its National Federations shall recognize the measures taken by other bodies which have not accepted the Code if the rules of those bodies are otherwise consistent with the Code.

15.3              Subject to the right to appeal provided in Article 13, any decision of IeSF regarding a violation of these Anti-Doping Rules shall be recognized by all National Federations, which shall take all necessary action to render such decision effective.

Article 16Incorporation of IeSF Anti-Doping Rules and Obligations of NFs

16.1 All National Federations and their members shall comply with these Anti-Doping Rules.  All National Federations and other members shall include in their regulations the provisions necessary to ensure that IeSF may enforce these Anti-Doping Rules directly as against Athletes under their anti-doping jurisdiction (including National-Level Athletes). These Anti-Doping Rules shall also be incorporated either directly or by reference into each National Federation's rules so that the National Federation may enforce them itself directly as against Athletes under its anti-doping jurisdiction (including National-Level Athletes).

16.2 All National Federations shall establish rules requiring all Athletes and each Athlete Support Personnel who participates as coach, trainer, manager, team staff, official, medical or paramedical personnel in a Competition or activity authorized or organized by a National Federation or one of its member organizations to agree to be bound by these Anti-Doping Rules and to submit to the results management authority of the Anti-Doping Organization responsible under the Code as a condition of such participation.

16.3 All National Federations shall report any information suggesting or relating to an anti-doping rule violation to IeSF and to their National Anti-Doping Organizations, and shall cooperate with investigations conducted by any Anti-Doping Organization with authority to conduct the investigation.

16.4 All National Federations shall have disciplinary rules in place to prevent Athlete Support Personnel who are Using Prohibited Substances or Prohibited Methods without valid justification from providing support to Athletes under the jurisdiction of IeSF or the National Federation.

16.5 All National Federations shall be required to conduct anti-doping education in coordination with their National Anti-Doping Organizations.

Article 17Statute of Limitations

No anti-doping rule violation proceeding  may be commenced against an Athlete or other Person unless he or she has been notified of the anti-doping rule violation as provided in Article 7, or notification has been reasonably attempted, within ten years from the date the violation is asserted to have occurred.

Article 18IeSF Compliance Reports to WADA

IeSF will report to WADA on IeSF's compliance with the Code in accordance with Article 23.5.2 of the Code.

Article 19Education

IeSF shall plan, implement, evaluate and monitor information, education and prevention programs for doping-free sport on at least the issues listed at Article 18.2 of the Code, and shall support active participation by Athletes and Athlete Support Personnel in such programs.

Article 20Amendment and Interpretation of Anti-Doping Rules

20.1 These Anti-Doping Rules may be amended from time to time by IeSF.

20.2              These Anti-Doping Rules shall be interpreted as an independent and autonomous text and not by reference to existing law or statutes.

20.3 The headings used for the various Parts and Articles of these Anti-Doping Rules are for convenience only and shall not be deemed part of the substance of these Anti-Doping Rules or to affect in any way the language of the provisions to which they refer.

20.4 The Code and the International Standards shall be considered integral parts of these Anti-Doping Rules and shall prevail in case of conflict.

20.5 These Anti-Doping Rules have been adopted pursuant to the applicable provisions of the Code and shall be interpreted in a manner that is consistent with applicable provisions of the Code. The Introduction shall be considered an integral part of these Anti-Doping Rules.

20.6 The comments annotating various provisions of the Code are incorporated by reference into these Anti-Doping Rules, shall be treated as if set out in full herein, and shall be used to interpret these Anti-Doping Rules.

20.7 These Anti-Doping Rules have come into full force and effect on 1 January 2015 (the “Effective Date”). They shall not apply retroactively to matters pending before the Effective Date; provided, however, that:

20.7.1 Anti-doping rule violations taking place prior to the Effective Date count as "first violations" or "second violations" for purposes of determining sanctions under Article 10 for violations taking place after the Effective Date.

20.7.2 The retrospective periods in which prior violations can be considered for purposes of multiple violations under Article 10.7.5 and the statute of limitations set forth in Article 17 are procedural rules and should be applied retroactively; provided, however, that Article 17 shall only be applied retroactively if the statute of limitations period has not already expired by the Effective Date. Otherwise, with respect to any anti-doping rule violation case which is pending as of the Effective Date and any anti-doping rule violation case brought after the Effective Date based on an anti-doping rule violation which occurred prior to the Effective Date, the case shall be governed by the substantive anti-doping rules in effect at the time the alleged anti-doping rule violation occurred unless the panel hearing the case determines the principle of “lex mitior” appropriately applies under the circumstances of the case.

20.7.3 Any Article 2.4 whereabouts failure (whether a Filing Failure or a Missed Test, as those terms are defined in the International Standard for Testing and Investigations) prior to the Effective Date shall be carried forward and may be relied upon, prior to expiry, in accordance with the International Standard for Testing and Investigation, but it shall be deemed to have expired 12 months after it occurred.

20.7.4 With respect to cases where a final decision finding an anti-doping rule violation has been rendered prior to the Effective Date, but the Athlete or other Person is still serving the period of Ineligibility as of the Effective Date, the Athlete or other Person may apply to the Anti-Doping Organization which had results management responsibility for the anti-doping rule violation to consider a reduction in the period of Ineligibility in light of these Anti-Doping Rules. Such application must be made before the period of Ineligibility has expired. The decision rendered may be appealed pursuant to Article 13.2. These Anti-Doping Rules shall have no application to any case where a final decision finding an anti-doping rule violation has been rendered and the period of Ineligibility has expired.

20.7.5 For purposes of assessing the period of Ineligibility for a second violation under Article 10.7.1, where the sanction for the first violation was determined based on rules in force prior to the Effective Date, the period of Ineligibility which would have been assessed for that first violation had these Anti-Doping Rules been applicable, shall be applied.

Article 21Interpretation of the Code

21.1 The official text of the Code shall be maintained by WADA and shall be published in English and French.  In the event of any conflict between the English and French versions, the English version shall prevail.

21.2 The comments annotating various provisions of the Code shall be used to interpret the Code.

21.3 The Code shall be interpreted as an independent and autonomous text and not by reference to the existing law or statutes of the Signatories or governments.

21.4 The headings used for the various Parts and Articles of the Code are for convenience only and shall not be deemed part of the substance of the Code or to affect in any way the language of the provisions to which they refer.

21.5 The Code shall not apply retroactively to matters pending before the date the Code is accepted by a Signatory and implemented in its rules. However, pre-Code anti-doping rule violations would continue to count as "first violations" or "second violations" for purposes of determining sanctions under Article 10 for subsequent post-Code violations.

21.6 The Purpose, Scope and Organization of the World Anti-Doping Program and the Code and Appendix 1, Definitions, and Appendix 2, Examples of the Application of Article 10, shall be considered integral parts of the Code.

Article 22Additional Roles and Responsibilities of Athletes and Other Persons

22.1 Roles and Responsibilities of Athletes.

22.1.1 To be knowledgeable of and comply with these Anti-Doping Rules.

22.1.2 To be available for Sample collection at all times.

22.1.3 To take responsibility, in the context of anti-doping, for what they ingest and Use.

22.1.4 To inform medical personnel of their obligation not to Use Prohibited Substances and Prohibited Methods and to take responsibility to make sure that any medical treatment received does not violate these Anti-Doping Rules.

22.1.5 To disclose to their National Anti-Doping Organization and to IeSF any decision by a non-Signatory finding that the Athlete committed an anti-doping rule violation within the previous ten years.

22.1.6 To cooperate with Anti-Doping Organizations investigating anti-doping rule violations.

22.1.7 Failure by any Athlete to cooperate in full with Anti-Doping Organizations investigating anti-doping rule violations may result in 3 months of sanction under Disciplinary Rules.

22.2 Roles and Responsibilities of Athlete Support Personnel

22.2.1 To be knowledgeable of and comply with these Anti-Doping Rules.

22.2.2 To cooperate with the Athlete Testing program.

22.2.3 To use his or her influence on Athlete values and behavior to foster anti-doping attitudes.

22.2.4 To disclose to his or her National Anti-Doping Organization and to IeSF any decision by a non-Signatory finding that he or she committed an anti-doping rule violation within the previous ten years.

22.2.5 To cooperate with Anti-Doping Organizations investigating anti-doping rule violations.

22.2.6 Failure by any Athlete Support Personnel to cooperate in full with Anti-Doping Organizations investigating anti-doping rule violations may result in 3 months of sanction under Disciplinary Rules.

22.2.7 Athlete Support Personnel shall not Use or Possess any Prohibited Substance or Prohibited Method without valid justification.

22.2.8 Use or Possession of a Prohibited Substance or Prohibited Method by an Athlete Support Personnel without valid justification may result in 6 months of sanction under Disciplinary Rules.

 


Appendix 1 - Definitions

 

ADAMS: The Anti-Doping Administration and Management System is a Web-based database management tool for data entry, storage, sharing, and reporting designed to assist stakeholders and WADA in their anti-doping operations in conjunction with data protection legislation.

Administration: Providing, supplying, supervising, facilitating, or otherwise participating in the Use or Attempted Use by another Person of a Prohibited Substance or Prohibited Method. However, this definition shall not include the actions of bona fide medical personnel involving a Prohibited Substance or Prohibited Method used for genuine and legal therapeutic purposes or other acceptable justification and shall not include actions involving Prohibited Substances which are not prohibited in Out-of-Competition Testing unless the circumstances as a whole demonstrate that such Prohibited Substances are not intended for genuine and legal therapeutic purposes or are intended to enhance sport performance.

Adverse Analytical Finding: A report from a WADA-accredited laboratory or other WADA-approved laboratory that, consistent with the International Standard for Laboratories and related Technical Documents, identifies in a Sample the presence of a Prohibited Substance or its Metabolites or Markers (including elevated quantities of endogenous substances) or evidence of the Use of a Prohibited Method.

Adverse Passport Finding: A report identified as an Adverse Passport Finding as described in the applicable International Standards.

Anti-Doping Organization: A Signatory that is responsible for adopting rules for initiating, implementing or enforcing any part of the Doping Control process. This includes, for example, the International Olympic Committee, the International Paralympic Committee, other Major Event Organizations that conduct Testing at their Events, WADA, International Federations, and National Anti-Doping Organizations.

Athlete: Any Person who competes in sport at the international level (as defined by each International Federation), or the national level (as defined by each National Anti-Doping Organization). An Anti-Doping Organization has discretion to apply anti-doping rules to an Athlete who is neither an International-Level Athlete nor a National-Level Athlete, and thus to bring them within the definition of “Athlete.” In relation to Athletes who are neither International-Level nor National-Level Athletes, an Anti-Doping Organization may elect to: conduct limited Testing or no Testing at all; analyze Samples for less than the full menu of Prohibited Substances; require limited or no whereabouts information; or not require advance TUEs. However, if an Article 2.1, 2.3 or 2.5 anti-doping rule violation is committed by any Athlete over whom an Anti-Doping Organization has authority who competes below the international or national level, then the Consequences set forth in the Code (except Article 14.3.2) must be applied. For purposes of Article 2.8 and Article 2.9 and for purposes of anti-doping information and education, any Person who participates in sport under the authority of any Signatory, government, or other sports organization accepting the Code is an Athlete.

Athlete Biological Passport: The program and methods of gathering and collating data as described in the International Standard for Testing and Investigations and International Standard for Laboratories.

Athlete Support Personnel: Any coach, trainer, manager, agent, team staff, official, medical, paramedical personnel, parent or any other Person working with, treating or assisting an Athlete participating in or preparing for sports Competition.

Attempt: Purposely engaging in conduct that constitutes a substantial step in a course of conduct planned to culminate in the commission of an anti-doping rule violation. Provided, however, there shall be no anti-doping rule violation based solely on an Attempt to commit a violation if the Person renounces the Attempt prior to it being discovered by a third party not involved in the Attempt.

Atypical Finding: A report from a WADA-accredited laboratory or other WADA-approved laboratory which requires further investigation as provided by the International Standard for Laboratories or related Technical Documents prior to the determination of an Adverse Analytical Finding.

Atypical Passport Finding: A report described as an Atypical Passport Finding as described in the applicable International Standards.

CAS: The Court of Arbitration for Sport.

Code: The World Anti-Doping Code.

Competition: A single race, match, game or singular sport contest. For example, a League of Legends match or the finals of the StarCraft II in e-Sports World Championship. For stage races and other sport contests where prizes are awarded on a daily or other interim basis the distinction between a Competition and an Event will be as provided in the rules of the applicable International Federation.

Consequences of Anti-Doping Rule Violations (“Consequences”): An Athlete's or other Person's violation of an anti-doping rule may result in one or more of the following: (a) Disqualification means the Athlete's results in a particular Competition or Event are invalidated, with all resulting Consequences including forfeiture of any medals, points and prizes; (b) Ineligibility means the Athlete or other Person is barred on account of an anti-doping rule violation for a specified period of time from participating in any Competition or other activity or funding as provided in Article 10.12.1; (c) Provisional Suspension means the Athlete or other Person is barred temporarily from participating in any Competition or activity prior to the final decision at a hearing conducted under Article 8; (d) Financial Consequences means a financial sanction imposed for an anti-doping rule violation or to recover costs associated with an anti-doping rule violation; and (e) Public Disclosure or Public Reporting means the dissemination or distribution of information to the general public or Persons beyond those Persons entitled to earlier notification in accordance with Article 14.  Teams in Team Sports may also be subject to Consequences as provided in Article 11 of the Code.

Contaminated Product: A product that contains a Prohibited Substance that is not disclosed on the product label or in information available in a reasonable Internet search.

Disqualification: See Consequences of Anti-Doping Rule Violations above.

Doping Control: All steps and processes from test distribution planning through to ultimate disposition of any appeal including all steps and processes in between such as provision of whereabouts information, Sample collection and handling, laboratory analysis, TUEs, results management and hearings.

Event: A series of individual Competitions conducted together under one ruling body (e.g., the Olympic Games, FINA World Championships, or Pan American Games).

Event Venues: Those venues so designated by the ruling body for the Event.

Event Period: The time between the beginning and end of an Event, as established by the ruling body of the Event.

Fault: Fault is any breach of duty or any lack of care appropriate to a particular situation. Factors to be taken into consideration in assessing an Athlete or other Person's degree of Fault include, for example, the Athlete's or other Person's experience, whether the Athlete or other Person is a Minor, special considerations such as impairment, the degree of risk that should have been perceived by the Athlete and the level of care and investigation exercised by the Athlete in relation to what should have been the perceived level of risk. In assessing the Athlete's or other Person's degree of Fault, the circumstances considered must be specific and relevant to explain the Athlete's or other Person's departure from the expected standard of behavior.  Thus, for example, the fact that an Athlete would lose the opportunity to earn large sums of money during a period of Ineligibility, or the fact that the Athlete only has a short time left in his or her career, or the timing of the sporting calendar, would not be relevant factors to be considered in reducing the period of Ineligibility under Article 10.5.1 or 10.5.2.

Financial Consequences: see Consequences of Anti-Doping Rule Violations, above.

In-Competition:In-Competition” means the period commencing twelve hours before a Competition in which the Athlete is scheduled to participate through the end of such Competition and the Sample collection process related to such Competition.

Independent Observer Program: A team of observers, under the supervision of WADA, who observe and provide guidance on the Doping Control process at certain Events and report on their observations.

Individual Sport: Any sport that is not a Team Sport.

Ineligibility: See Consequences of Anti-Doping Rule Violations above.

International Event: An Event or Competition where the International Olympic Committee, the International Paralympic Committee, an International Federation, a Major Event Organization, or another international sport organization is the ruling body for the Event or appoints the technical officials for the Event.

International-Level Athlete: Athletes who compete in sport at the international level, as defined by each International Federation, consistent with the International Standard for Testing and Investigations. For e-Sports, International-Level Athletes are defined as set out in the Scope section of the Introduction to these Anti-Doping Rules.

International Standard: A standard adopted by WADA in support of the Code. Compliance with an International Standard (as opposed to another alternative standard, practice or procedure) shall be sufficient to conclude that the procedures addressed by the International Standard were performed properly. International Standards shall include any Technical Documents issued pursuant to the International Standard.

Major Event Organizations: The continental associations of National Olympic Committees and other international multi-sport organizations that function as the ruling body for any continental, regional or other International Event.

Marker: A compound, group of compounds or biological variable(s) that indicates the Use of a Prohibited Substance or Prohibited Method.

Metabolite: Any substance produced by a biotransformation process.

Minor: A natural Person who has not reached the age of eighteen years.

National Anti-Doping Organization: The entity(ies) designated by each country as possessing the primary authority and responsibility to adopt and implement anti-doping rules, direct the collection of Samples, the management of test results, and the conduct of hearings at the national level. If this designation has not been made by the competent public authority(ies), the entity shall be the country's National Olympic Committee or its designee.

National Event: A sport Event or Competition involving International- or National-Level Athletes that is not an International Event.

National Federation: A national or regional entity which is a member of or is recognized by IeSF as the entity governing IeSF's sport in that nation or region.

National-Level Athlete: Athletes who compete in sport at the national level, as defined by each National Anti-Doping Organization, consistent with the International Standard for Testing and Investigations.

National Olympic Committee: The organization recognized by the International Olympic Committee.  The term National Olympic Committee shall also include the National Sport Confederation in those countries where the National Sport Confederation assumes typical National Olympic Committee responsibilities in the anti-doping area.

No Fault or Negligence: The Athlete or other Person's establishing that he or she did not know or suspect, and could not reasonably have known or suspected even with the exercise of utmost caution, that he or she had Used or been administered the Prohibited Substance or Prohibited Method or otherwise violated an anti-doping rule. Except in the case of a Minor, for any violation of Article 2.1, the Athlete must also establish how the Prohibited Substance entered his or her system.

No Significant Fault or Negligence: The Athlete or other Person's establishing that his or her Fault or negligence, when viewed in the totality of the circumstances and taking into account the criteria for No Fault or negligence, was not significant in relationship to the anti-doping rule violation. Except in the case of a Minor, for any violation of Article 2.1, the Athlete must also establish how the Prohibited Substance entered his or her system.

Out-of-Competition: Any period which is not In-Competition.

Participant: Any Athlete or Athlete Support Person.

Person: A natural Person or an organization or other entity.

Possession: The actual, physical Possession, or the constructive Possession (which shall be found only if the Person has exclusive control or intends to exercise control over the Prohibited Substance or Prohibited Method or the premises in which a Prohibited Substance or Prohibited Method exists); provided, however, that if the Person does not have exclusive control over the Prohibited Substance or Prohibited Method or the premises in which a Prohibited Substance or Prohibited Method exists, constructive Possession shall only be found if the Person knew about the presence of the Prohibited Substance or Prohibited Method and intended to exercise control over it.  Provided, however, there shall be no anti-doping rule violation based solely on Possession if, prior to receiving notification of any kind that the Person has committed an anti-doping rule violation, the Person has taken concrete action demonstrating that the Person never intended to have Possession and has renounced Possession by explicitly declaring it to an Anti-Doping Organization. Notwithstanding anything to the contrary in this definition, the purchase (including by any electronic or other means) of a Prohibited Substance or Prohibited Method constitutes Possession by the Person who makes the purchase.

Prohibited List: The List identifying the Prohibited Substances and Prohibited Methods.

Prohibited Method: Any method so described on the Prohibited List.

Prohibited Substance: Any substance, or class of substances, so described on the Prohibited List.

Provisional Hearing: For purposes of Article 7.9, an expedited abbreviated hearing occurring prior to a hearing under Article 8 that provides the Athlete with notice and an opportunity to be heard in either written or oral form.

Provisional Suspension: See Consequences of Anti-Doping Rule Violations above.

Publicly Disclose or Publicly Report: See Consequences of Anti-Doping Rule Violations above.

Regional Anti-Doping Organization: A regional entity designated by member countries to coordinate and manage delegated areas of their national anti-doping programs, which may include the adoption and implementation of anti-doping rules, the planning and collection of Samples, the management of results, the review of TUEs, the conduct of hearings, and the conduct of educational programs at a regional level.

Registered Testing Pool: The pool of highest-priority Athletes established separately at the international level by International Federations and at the national level by National Anti-Doping Organizations, who are subject to focused In-Competition and Out-of-Competition Testing as part of that International Federation's or National Anti-Doping Organization's test distribution plan and therefore are required to provide whereabouts information as provided in Article 5.6 of the Code and the International Standard for Testing and Investigations.

Sample or Specimen: Any biological material collected for the purposes of Doping Control.

Signatories: Those entities signing the Code and agreeing to comply with the Code, as provided in Article 23 of the Code.

Specified Substance: See Article 4.2.2.

Strict Liability: The rule which provides that under Article 2.1 and Article 2.2, it is not necessary that intent, Fault, negligence, or knowing Use on the Athlete's part be demonstrated by the Anti-Doping Organization in order to establish an anti-doping rule violation.

Substantial Assistance: For purposes of Article 10.6.1, a Person providing Substantial Assistance must: (1) fully disclose in a signed written statement all information he or she possesses in relation to anti-doping rule violations, and (2) fully cooperate with the investigation and adjudication of any case related to that information, including, for example, presenting testimony at a hearing if requested to do so by an Anti-Doping Organization or hearing panel. Further, the information provided must be credible and must comprise an important part of any case which is initiated or, if no case is initiated, must have provided a sufficient basis on which a case could have been brought.

Tampering: Altering for an improper purpose or in an improper way; bringing improper influence to bear; interfering improperly; obstructing, misleading or engaging in any fraudulent conduct to alter results or prevent normal procedures from occurring.

Target Testing: Selection of specific Athletes for Testing based on criteria set forth in the International Standard for Testing and Investigations.

Team Sport: A sport in which the substitution of players is permitted during a Competition.

Testing: The parts of the Doping Control process involving test distribution planning, Sample collection, Sample handling, and Sample transport to the laboratory.

Trafficking: Selling, giving, transporting, sending, delivering or distributing (or Possessing for any such purpose) a Prohibited Substance or Prohibited Method (either physically or by any electronic or other means) by an Athlete, Athlete Support Person or any other Person subject to the jurisdiction of an Anti-Doping Organization to any third party; provided, however, this definition shall not include the actions of "bona fide" medical personnel involving a Prohibited Substance used for genuine and legal therapeutic purposes or other acceptable justification, and shall not include actions involving Prohibited Substances which are not prohibited in Out-of-Competition Testing unless the circumstances as a whole demonstrate such Prohibited Substances are not intended for genuine and legal therapeutic purposes or are intended to enhance sport performance.

TUE: Therapeutic Use Exemption, as described in Article 4.4.

UNESCO Convention: The International Convention against Doping in Sport adopted by the 33rd session of the UNESCO General Conference on 19 October, 2005 including any and all amendments adopted by the States Parties to the Convention and the Conference of Parties to the International Convention against Doping in Sport.

Use: The utilization, application, ingestion, injection or consumption by any means whatsoever of any Prohibited Substance or Prohibited Method.

WADA: The World Anti-Doping Agency.

 

 


Appendix 2 – Examples of the Application of Article 10

 

Example 1

Facts: An Adverse Analytical Finding results from the presence of an anabolic steroid in an In-Competition test (Article 2.1); the Athlete promptly admits the anti-doping rule violation; the Athlete establishes No Significant Fault or Negligence; and the Athlete provides Substantial Assistance.

Application of Consequences:

1. The starting point would be Article 10.2. Because the Athlete is deemed to have No Significant Fault that would be sufficient corroborating evidence (Articles 10.2.1.1 and 10.2.3) that the anti-doping rule violation was not intentional, the period of Ineligibility would thus be two years, not four years (Article 10.2.2).

2. In a second step, the panel would analyze whether the Fault-related reductions (Articles 10.4 and 10.5) apply. Based on No Significant Fault or Negligence (Article 10.5.2) since the anabolic steroid is not a Specified Substance, the applicable range of sanctions would be reduced to a range of two years to one year (minimum one-half of the two year sanction). The panel would then determine the applicable period of Ineligibility within this range based on the Athlete's degree of Fault. (Assume for purposes of illustration in this example that the panel would otherwise impose a period of Ineligibility of 16 months.)

3. In a third step, the panel would assess the possibility for suspension or reduction under Article 10.6 (reductions not related to Fault). In this case, only Article 10.6.1 (Substantial Assistance) applies.  (Article 10.6.3, Prompt Admission, is not applicable because the period of Ineligibility is already below the two-year minimum set forth in Article 10.6.3.) Based on Substantial Assistance, the period of Ineligibility could be suspended by three-quarters of 16 months.* The minimum period of Ineligibility would thus be four months. (Assume for purposes of illustration in this example that the panel suspends ten months and the period of Ineligibility would thus be six months.)

4. Under Article 10.11, the period of Ineligibility, in principle, starts on the date of the final hearing decision. However, because the Athlete promptly admitted the anti-doping rule violation, the period of Ineligibility could start as early as the date of Sample collection, but in any event the Athlete would have to serve at least one-half of the Ineligibility period (i.e., three months) after the date of the hearing decision (Article 10.11.2).

5. Since the Adverse Analytical Finding was committed in a Competition, the panel would have to automatically Disqualify the result obtained in that Competition (Article 9).

6. According to Article 10.8, all results obtained by the Athlete subsequent to the date of the Sample collection until the start of the period of Ineligibility would also be Disqualified unless fairness requires otherwise.

7. The information referred to in Article 14.3.2 must be Publicly Disclosed, unless the Athlete is a Minor, since this is a mandatory part of each sanction (Article 10.13).

8. The Athlete is not allowed to participate in any capacity in a Competition or other sport-related activity under the authority of any Signatory or its affiliates during the Athlete's period of Ineligibility (Article 10.12.1). However, the Athlete may return to train with a team or to use the facilities of a club or other member organization of a Signatory or its affiliates during the shorter of: (a) the last two months of the Athlete's period of Ineligibility, or (b) the last one-quarter of the period of Ineligibility imposed (Article 10.12.2). Thus, the Athlete would be allowed to return to training one and one-half months before the end of the period of Ineligibility.

EXAMPLE 2

Facts: An Adverse Analytical Finding results from the presence of a stimulant which is a Specified Substance in an In-Competition test (Article 2.1); the Anti-Doping Organization is able to establish that the Athlete committed the anti-doping rule violation intentionally; the Athlete is not able to establish that the Prohibited Substance was Used Out-of-Competition in a context unrelated to sport performance; the Athlete does not promptly admit the anti-doping rule violation as alleged; the Athlete does provide Substantial Assistance.

Application of Consequences:

1. The starting point would be Article 10.2. Because the Anti-Doping Organization can establish that the anti-doping rule violation was committed intentionally and the Athlete is unable to establish that the substance was permitted Out-of-Competition and the Use was unrelated to the Athlete's sport performance (Article 10.2.3), the period of Ineligibility would be four years (Article 10.2.1.2).

2. Because the violation was intentional, there is no room for a reduction based on Fault (no application of Articles 10.4 and 10.5). Based on Substantial Assistance, the sanction could be suspended by up to three-quarters of the four years.* The minimum period of Ineligibility would thus be one year.

3. Under Article 10.11, the period of Ineligibility would start on the date of the final hearing decision.

4. Since the Adverse Analytical Finding was committed in a Competition, the panel would automatically Disqualify the result obtained in the Competition.

5. According to Article 10.8, all results obtained by the Athlete subsequent to the date of Sample collection until the start of the period of Ineligibility would also be Disqualified unless fairness requires otherwise.

6. The information referred to in Article 14.3.2 must be Publicly Disclosed, unless the Athlete is a Minor, since this is a mandatory part of each sanction (Article 10.13).

7. The Athlete is not allowed to participate in any capacity in a Competition or other sport-related activity under the authority of any Signatory or its affiliates during the Athlete's period of Ineligibility (Article 10.12.1). However, the Athlete may return to train with a team or to use the facilities of a club or other member organization of a Signatory or its affiliates during the shorter of: (a) the last two months of the Athlete's period of Ineligibility, or (b) the last one-quarter of the period of Ineligibility imposed (Article 10.12.2). Thus, the Athlete would be allowed to return to training two months before the end of the period of Ineligibility.

EXAMPLE 3

Facts: An Adverse Analytical Finding results from the presence of an anabolic steroid in an Out-of-Competition test (Article 2.1); the Athlete establishes No Significant Fault or Negligence; the Athlete also establishes that the Adverse Analytical Finding was caused by a Contaminated Product.

Application of Consequences:

1. The starting point would be Article 10.2. Because the Athlete can establish through corroborating evidence that he did not commit the anti-doping rule violation intentionally, i.e., he had No Significant Fault in Using a Contaminated Product (Articles 10.2.1.1 and 10.2.3), the period of Ineligibility would be two years (Articles 10.2.2).

2. In a second step, the panel would analyze the Fault-related possibilities for reductions (Articles 10.4 and 10.5). Since the Athlete can establish that the anti-doping rule violation was caused by a Contaminated Product and that he acted with No Significant Fault or Negligence based on Article 10.5.1.2, the applicable range for the period of Ineligibility would be reduced to a range of two years to a reprimand.  The panel would determine the period of Ineligibility within this range, based on the Athlete's degree of Fault. (Assume for purposes of illustration in this example that the panel would otherwise impose a period of Ineligibility of four months.)

3. According to Article 10.8, all results obtained by the Athlete subsequent to the date of Sample collection until the start of the period of Ineligibility would be Disqualified unless fairness requires otherwise.

4. The information referred to in Article 14.3.2 must be Publicly Disclosed, unless the Athlete is a Minor, since this is a mandatory part of each sanction (Article 10.13).

5. The Athlete is not allowed to participate in any capacity in a Competition or other sport-related activity under the authority of any Signatory or its affiliates during the Athlete's period of Ineligibility (Article 10.12.1). However, the Athlete may return to train with a team or to use the facilities of a club or other member organization of a Signatory or its affiliates during the shorter of: (a) the last two months of the Athlete's period of Ineligibility, or (b) the last one-quarter of the period of Ineligibility imposed (Article 10.12.2). Thus, the Athlete would be allowed to return to training one month before the end of the period of Ineligibility.

EXAMPLE 4

Facts: An Athlete who has never had an Adverse Analytical Finding or been confronted with an anti-doping rule violation spontaneously admits that she Used an anabolic steroid to enhance her performance. The Athlete also provides Substantial Assistance.

Application of Consequences:

1. Since the violation was intentional, Article 10.2.1 would be applicable and the basic period of Ineligibility imposed would be four years.

2. There is no room for Fault-related reductions of the period of Ineligibility (no application of Articles 10.4 and 10.5).

3. Based on the Athlete's spontaneous admission (Article 10.6.2) alone, the period of Ineligibility could be reduced by up to one-half of the four years. Based on the Athlete's Substantial Assistance (Article 10.6.1) alone, the period of Ineligibility could be suspended up to three-quarters of the four years.* Under Article 10.6.4, in considering the spontaneous admission and Substantial Assistance together, the most the sanction could be reduced or suspended would be up to three-quarters of the four years. The minimum period of Ineligibility would be one year.

4. The period of Ineligibility, in principle, starts on the day of the final hearing decision (Article 10.11). If the spontaneous admission is factored into the reduction of the period of Ineligibility, an early start of the period of Ineligibility under Article 10.11.2 would not be permitted. The provision seeks to prevent an Athlete from benefitting twice from the same set of circumstances. However, if the period of Ineligibility was suspended solely on the basis of Substantial Assistance, Article 10.11.2 may still be applied, and the period of Ineligibility started as early as the Athlete's last Use of the anabolic steroid.

5. According to Article 10.8, all results obtained by the Athlete subsequent to the date of the anti-doping rule violation until the start of the period of Ineligibility would be Disqualified unless fairness requires otherwise.

6. The information referred to in Article 14.3.2 must be Publicly Disclosed, unless the Athlete is a Minor, since this is a mandatory part of each sanction (Article 10.13).

7. The Athlete is not allowed to participate in any capacity in a Competition or other sport-related activity under the authority of any Signatory or its affiliates during the Athlete's period of Ineligibility (Article 10.12.1). However, the Athlete may return to train with a team or to use the facilities of a club or other member organization of a Signatory or its affiliates during the shorter of: (a) the last two months of the Athlete's period of Ineligibility, or (b) the last one-quarter of the period of Ineligibility imposed (Article 10.12.2). Thus, the Athlete would be allowed to return to training two months before the end of the period of Ineligibility.

EXAMPLE 5

Facts: An Athlete Support Person helps to circumvent a period of Ineligibility imposed on an Athlete by entering him into a Competition under a false name. The Athlete Support Person comes forward with this anti-doping rule violation (Article 2.9) spontaneously before being notified of an anti-doping rule violation by an Anti-Doping Organization.

Application of Consequences:

1. According to Article 10.3.4, the period of Ineligibility would be from two up to four years, depending on the seriousness of the violation. (Assume for purposes of illustration in this example that the panel would otherwise impose a period of Ineligibility of three years.)

2. There is no room for Fault-related reductions since intent is an element of the anti-doping rule violation in Article 2.9 (see comment to Article 10.5.2).

3. According to Article 10.6.2, provided that the admission is the only reliable evidence, the period of Ineligibility may be reduced down to one-half. (Assume for purposes of illustration in this example that the panel would impose a period of Ineligibility of 18 months.)

4. The information referred to in Article 14.3.2 must be Publicly Disclosed unless the Athlete Support Person is a Minor, since this is a mandatory part of each sanction (Article 10.13).

 

EXAMPLE 6

Facts: An Athlete was sanctioned for a first anti-doping rule violation with a period of Ineligibility of 14 months, of which four months were suspended because of Substantial Assistance. Now, the Athlete commits a second anti-doping rule violation resulting from the presence of a stimulant which is not a Specified Substance in an In-Competition test (Article 2.1); the Athlete establishes No Significant Fault or Negligence; and the Athlete provided Substantial Assistance. If this were a first violation, the panel would sanction the Athlete with a period of Ineligibility of 16 months and suspend six months for Substantial Assistance.

Application of Consequences:

1. Article 10.7 is applicable to the second anti-doping rule violation because Article 10.7.4.1 and Article 10.7.5 apply.

2. Under Article 10.7.1, the period of Ineligibility would be the greater of:

(a)                six months;

(b)               one-half of the period of Ineligibility imposed for the first anti-doping rule violation without taking into account any reduction under Article 10.6 (in this example, that would equal one-half of 14 months, which is seven months); or

(c)                twice the period of Ineligibility otherwise applicable to the second anti-doping rule violation treated as if it were a first violation, without taking into account any reduction under Article 10.6 (in this example, that would equal two times 16 months, which is 32 months).

Thus, the period of Ineligibility for the second violation would be the greater of (a), (b) and (c), which is a period of Ineligibility of 32 months.

3. In a next step, the panel would assess the possibility for suspension or reduction under Article 10.6 (non-Fault-related reductions). In the case of the second violation, only Article 10.6.1 (Substantial Assistance) applies. Based on Substantial Assistance, the period of Ineligibility could be suspended by three-quarters of 32 months.* The minimum period of Ineligibility would thus be eight months.  (Assume for purposes of illustration in this example that the panel suspends eight months of the period of Ineligibility for Substantial Assistance, thus reducing the period of Ineligibility imposed to two years.)

4. Since the Adverse Analytical Finding was committed in a Competition, the panel would automatically Disqualify the result obtained in the Competition.

5. According to Article 10.8, all results obtained by the Athlete subsequent to the date of Sample collection until the start of the period of Ineligibility would also be Disqualified unless fairness requires otherwise.

6. The information referred to in Article 14.3.2 must be Publicly Disclosed, unless the Athlete is a Minor, since this is a mandatory part of each sanction (Article 10.13).

7. The Athlete is not allowed to participate in any capacity in a Competition or other sport-related activity under the authority of any Signatory or its affiliates during the Athlete's period of Ineligibility (Article 10.12.1). However, the Athlete may return to train with a team or to use the facilities of a club or other member organization of a Signatory or its affiliates during the shorter of: (a) the last two months of the Athlete's period of Ineligibility, or (b) the last one-quarter of the period of Ineligibility imposed (Article 10.12.2). Thus, the Athlete would be allowed to return to training two months before the end of the period of Ineligibility

                                                                                 

*  Upon the approval of WADA in exceptional circumstances, the maximum suspension of the period of Ineligibility for Substantial Assistance may be greater than three-quarters, and reporting and publication may be delayed.

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